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Jonathan Shahar, Esther Zemel, Ido Perlman, Anat Loewenstein; Physiological and Toxicological Effects of Cefuroxime on the Albino Rabbit Retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(2):906-914. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8053.
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Intracameral cefuroxime was found to lower the risk of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of cefuroxime in a rabbit model.
Twenty-two albino rabbits were divided into two cefuroxime groups: low-dose (1mg/0.1 mL, n = 9) and high dose (10 mg/0.1 mL, n = 13). The right eye of each rabbit was injected with 0.1 mL cefuroxime solution (experimental eye) and the left eye with 0.1 mL saline (control eye). Electroretinogram (ERG) responses were recorded at 3 hours, 4 days, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injection. After 4 weeks, the rabbits were euthanized, the eyes were enucleated, and the retinas were prepared for histologic evaluation and GFAP immunostaining.
No functional (ERG) or histologic damage was found in rabbits in the low-dose group. In the high-dose group, a significant decrease in the ERG amplitudes of the experimental eyes was seen 3 hours after injection, followed by partial recovery during 4 weeks of follow-up. Retinal histology of experimental eyes revealed marked damage. GFAP immunoreactivity in Müller cells was expressed in rabbits belonging to both groups, although it was more extensive in the high-dose group.
ERG and histologic findings indicated that a dose of 1 mg cefuroxime, administered intravitreally, was not toxic to the rabbit retina. A dose of 10 mg, injected intravitreally, induced transient physiological effects, and was toxic to the rabbit retina, as was evident by the permanent reduction in the ERG responses and by the structural damage to the retina with signs of glial activation.
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