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Jongshin Kim, Kyoung Won Nam, Ik Gyu Jang, Hee Kyung Yang, Kwang Gi Kim, Jeong-Min Hwang; Nintendo Wii Remote Controllers for Head Posture Measurement: Accuracy, Validity, and Reliability of the Infrared Optical Head Tracker. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(3):1388-1396. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-8329.
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© 2016 Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
To evaluate the accuracy, validity, and reliability of a newly developed infrared optical head tracker (IOHT) using Nintendo Wii remote controllers (WiiMote; Nintendo Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) for measurement of the angle of head posture.
The IOHT consists of two infrared (IR) receivers (WiiMote) that are fixed to a mechanical frame and connected to a monitoring computer via a Bluetooth communication channel and an IR beacon that consists of four IR light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With the use of the Cervical Range of Motion (CROM; Performance Attainment Associates, St. Paul, MN) as a reference, one- and three-dimensional (1- and 3-D) head postures of 20 normal adult subjects (20–37 years of age; 9 women and 11 men) were recorded with the IOHT.
In comparison with the data from the CROM, the IOHT-derived results showed high consistency. The measurements of 1- and 3-D positions of the human head with the IOHT were very close to those of the CROM. The correlation coefficients of 1- and 3-D positions between the IOHT and the CROM were more than 0.99 and 0.96 (P < 0.05, Pearson's correlation test), respectively. Reliability tests of the IOHT for the normal adult subjects for 1- and 3-D positions of the human head had 95% limits of agreement angles of approximately ±4.5° and ±8.0°, respectively.
The IOHT showed strong concordance with the CROM and relatively good test–retest reliability, thus proving its validity and reliability as a head-posture–measuring device. Considering its high performance, ease of use, and low cost, the IOHT has the potential to be widely used as a head-posture–measuring device in clinical practice.
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