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Yi Wei, Seth P. Epstein, Shima Fukuoka, Neil P. Birmingham, Xiu-Min Li, Penny A. Asbell; sPLA2-IIa Amplifies Ocular Surface Inflammation in the Experimental Dry Eye (DE) BALB/c Mouse Model. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2011;52(7):4780-4788. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6350.
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sPLA2-IIa is a biomarker for many inflammatory diseases in humans and is found at high levels in human tears. However, its role in ocular surface inflammation remains unclear. An experimentally induced BALB/c mouse dry eye (DE) model was used to elucidate the role of sPLA2-IIa in ocular surface inflammation.
BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with scopolamine and placed in a daytime air-drying device for 5 to 10 days. Control mice received no treatment. DE status was evaluated with tear production with a phenol-red thread method. Tear inflammatory cytokines were quantified by multiplex immunoassays. Ocular surface inflammation and sPLA2-IIa expression were examined by immune-staining and quantitative (q)RT2-PCR. Conjunctiva (CNJ) of the mice was cultured for prostaglandin E2 production induced by sPLA2-IIa with various amount of sPLA2-IIa inhibitor, S-3319.
Treated mice produced fewer tears and heavier corneal (CN) fluorescein staining than the untreated controls (P < 0.001). They also revealed lower goblet cell density (P < 0.001) with greater inflammatory cell infiltration within the conjunctiva, and higher concentration of tear inflammatory cytokines than the controls. Moreover, treated mice showed heavier sPLA2-IIa immune staining than the controls in the CNJ epithelium, but not in the CN epithelium or the lacrimal gland. Treated mice exhibited upregulated sPLA2-IIa and cytokine gene transcription. Furthermore, CNJ cultures treated with sPLA2-IIa inhibitor showed significantly reduced sPLA2-IIa-induced inflammation.
This is the first report regarding sPLA2-IIa in the regulation of ocular surface inflammation. The findings may therefore lead to new therapeutic strategies for ocular surface inflammation, such as DE disease.
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