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Jeong Goo Lee, EunDuck P. Kay; NF-κB Is the Transcription Factor for FGF-2 That Causes Endothelial Mesenchymal Transformation in Cornea. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(3):1530-1538. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9102.
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To determine the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during FGF-2–mediated endothelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in response to interleukin (IL)-1β stimulation in corneal endothelial cells (CECs).
Expression and/or activation of IL-1 receptor–associated protein kinase (IRAK), TNF receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), IκB kinase (IKK), IκB, NF-κB, and FGF-2 were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NF-κB activity was measured by NF-κB ELISA kit, while binding of NF-κB to the promoter region of FGF-2 gene was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Brief stimulation of CECs with IL-1β upregulated expression of IRAK and TRAF6 and activated PI 3-kinase; expression of IRAK and TRAF6 reached maximum within 60 minutes, after which the expression disappeared, while PI 3-kinase activity was observed up to 4 hours after IL-1β stimulation. Use of specific inhibitor to PI 3-kinase or IRAK demonstrated that IRAK activates PI 3-kinase, the signaling of which phosphorylates IKKα/β and degrades IκB, subsequently leading to activation of NF-κB. The induction of FGF-2 by IL-1β was completely blocked by inhibitors to NF-κB activation (sulfasalazine) or PI 3-kinase (LY294002), and both inhibitors greatly blocked cell proliferation of CECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation further demonstrated that NF-κB is the transcription factor of FGF-2 as NF-κB binds the putative NF-κB binding site of the FGF-2 promoter.
These data suggest that IL-1β signaling combines the canonical pathway and the PI 3-kinase signaling to upregulate FGF-2 production through NF-κB, which plays a key role as a transcription factor of FGF-2 gene.
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