April 2012
Volume 53, Issue 4
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Clinical and Epidemiologic Research  |   April 2012
Contribution of Genetic and Environmental Effects on Lens Thickness: The Guangzhou Twin Eye Study
Author Notes
  • From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 
  • Corresponding author: Mingguang He, Division of Preventive Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Guangzhou 510060, People's Republic of China; mingguang_he@yahoo.com
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2012, Vol.53, 1758-1763. doi:10.1167/iovs.11-9318
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      Peiyang Shen, Xiaohu Ding, Yingfeng Zheng, Nathan G. Congdon, Mingguang He; Contribution of Genetic and Environmental Effects on Lens Thickness: The Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(4):1758-1763. doi: 10.1167/iovs.11-9318.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose.: This study investigated the heritability of lens thickness (LT) and relative lens thickness (LT/axial length, rLT) measured by Lenstar among Chinese children and adolescents in the Guangzhou Twin Eye study.

Methods.: Twins aged 8 to 22 years were enrolled from the Guangzhou Twin Registry. A series of LT and axial length (AL) measurements using the Lenstar were taken for each twin. Zygosity was confirmed by genotyping in all same-sex twin pairs. Heritability was assessed by structural variance component genetic modeling, after adjustment for age and sex with the Mx program.

Results.: Seven hundred sixty-eight twin pairs (482 monozygotic [MZ] and 286 dizygotic [DZ] twins) were available for data analysis. The mean (standard deviation) LT and rLT were 3.45 (0.18) mm and 0.142 (0.01), respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for LT were 0.90 for the MZ and 0.39 for the DZ twins; and those for rLT were 0.90 for the MZ and 0.40 for the DZ twins, respectively. The best-fitting model yielded 89.5% (95% CI: 87.8%–91.0%) of additive genetic effects and 10.5% (95% CI: 9.0%–12.2%) of unique environmental effects for LT, and 89.3% (95% CI: 89.2%–89.3%) of additive genetic effects and 10.7% (95% CI: 10.7%–11.4%) of unique environmental effects for rLT.

Conclusions.: This study confirms that the LT in young healthy subjects may be mainly affected by additive genetic factors. High heritability remains even when the data are corrected for the influence of AL with the use of rLT.

Introduction
Glaucoma is the second-leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world, affecting nearly 70 million people. 1 Population-based studies suggest that the prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is approximately 1.5% among Chinese people, which is markedly higher than that for European or African populations. 2,3 Anatomic differences in the biometry of the anterior segment of the eye are considered to be a major contributor to this ethnic difference. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) has been found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of angle-closure among Chinese, Mongolian, and Inuit populations. 46 The observed ethnic differences in prevalence of PACG and the underlying anatomic basis have led to considerable interest in identifying a genetic mechanism of angle closure and its predisposing anatomic traits. 
As a dichotomous phenotype, angle closure is often highly age-dependent and subject to environmental influence. The adoption of intermediate phenotypes could provide more information than a simple description of affected or unaffected status and could perhaps make it easier to map disease-susceptibility genes. This endophenotype strategy has been successfully applied to gene mapping of many complex disorders. 7,8 An “ideal intermediate phenotype” should be heritable and stable, closely associated with the disease or biological phenomenon, and relatively easy to quantify. 9 Anatomic traits associated with primary angle closure (PAC) include small corneal diameter, steep corneal curvature, shallow anterior chamber, short axial length (AL), and a thick, relatively anteriorly positioned lens. 10 Among these factors, lens thickness (LT) and lens position are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PAC. With age, there is an increase in LT and a relatively more anterior lens position. 10 Thickening and anterior positioning of the lens are recognized as a major anatomic predisposing factor for the development of PAC due to angle crowding and a greater predisposition to pupillary block. 11 Recent studies have demonstrated that eyes with PAC have thicker lenses. 12,13 However, there has been little research into the hereditary aspects of LT. 
The recently available optical low-coherence reflectometer Lenstar LS 900 (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) is a fast, noncontact device which allows for LT measurements along the visual axis with excellent repeatability and high resolution. 14,15 Twin studies are widely recognized as a “perfect natural experiment” to elucidate genetic and environmental contributions to variations in phenotypes. 16 A comparison of phenotypic similarities between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins allows for the estimation of heritability, the proportion of the total phenotypic variation attributable to genetic variance. The current study is therefore performed to estimate the heritability of LT in a Han Chinese population aged 8 to 22 years recruited from a population-based twin registry in a classic twin study design. 
Materials and Methods
Study Population
All participants were recruited from the Guangzhou Twin Registry, which is population based and has been described in detail elsewhere. 17 In brief, all twins born between 1987 and 2003 were identified using an official Guangzhou Household Registry, which was verified by door-to-door visits. 17 The data collection started in 2006. In 2011, 817 twin pairs aged 8 to 22 years at the time of examination participated in the annual data collection, providing cross-sectional information on spherical equivalent (SE), AL, and LT measurements. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center and was performed in accordance with the tenets of the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained either from parents, legal guardians, or the twins themselves in all cases. 
Zygosity of all same-sex twin pairs was determined by 16 multiplex short tandem repeats (PowerPlex 16 system; Promega, Madison, WI) at the Forensic Medicine Department of Sun Yat-sen University. Opposite-sex twin pairs were considered to be DZ. 
Examination
All Lenstar measurements were obtained by one trained ophthalmologist (X.D.) prior to pupil dilation in a single dark room. Subjects were instructed to blink just prior to testing, in order to create an optically smooth tear film over the cornea. They were asked to fixate on a measurement beam within the machine to ensure that all measurements were taken along the visual axis. Three consecutive readings were taken for each eye. LT and AL were measured simultaneously using the principle of optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and the data were automatically extracted from the device as a spreadsheet file. Cycloplegia was induced with 2 drops of 1% cyclopentolate, administered 5 minutes apart, with a third drop administered after 20 minutes. Refraction was then performed with an autorefractor (KR-8800, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). Results for each eye were converted to SE (half the amount of cylinder plus the spherical component). 
Data from 110 consecutive participants from the twin cohort were selected for assessing intraobserver repeatability. The mean standard deviation between three consecutive measurements (SDwithin) and the coefficient of variation (CV) (ratio of SDwithin and mean) were calculated. CVs for LT and AL were 0.5% and less than 0.1%, respectively. 
Data Analysis and Genetic Modeling
The results are presented as the mean ± SD. The right eye was used for data collection and analysis. LT and relative LT (rLT) were treated as quantitative traits and analyzed by quantitative genetic modeling. rLT was calculated as LT divided by AL. The estimation of heritability in twin studies is based on model-fitting analyses as well as concordance comparison of phenotypes between MZ and DZ twins. In a classic twin study design, a significantly greater correlation in MZ twins than in DZ twins indicates a role for genetic factors, given that the MZ twins share 100% of their genes, whereas DZ twins share on average 50%. The degree of environmental similarity was assumed to be essentially identical between MZ and DZ twins. 
The Mx program was used for model-fitting variance component analyses. 18 The total phenotypic variance is decomposed into additive (A) genetic, dominance (D) genetic, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental variance. The E component also includes measurement error. Because the C and D components confound each other when pairs of twins are reared together, the twin model allows only one of these two to be included in one modeling session. If the pairwise correlation in DZ twins is less than half of that in MZ twins, it suggests a contribution of genetic dominance. In this case, the model is fitted with an ADE (A and D genetic variances as well as unique E variances) model; otherwise, the model is fitted with an ACE model. The best-fitting model was determined based on maximum likelihood and χ 2 tests. A significant change in χ 2 values between the full and reduced model would indicate that the parameter removed from the full model was significant and therefore should be retained. In contrast, a nonsignificant change in χ 2 values suggests that the parameter eliminated from the full model was not significant and therefore, should be dropped to achieve parsimony of the model. To control for the effects of age and sex, the model treated these variables as covariates. 
Results
A total of 768 twin pairs (482 MZ pairs, 286 DZ pairs) provided complete data for analysis, after excluding 32 pairs with systemic (e.g., cerebral palsy) or ocular conditions (e.g., cataract, retinopathy of prematurity), and 17 pairs with missing biometric or zygosity data for either twin. The mean age was 14.0 ± 3.0 years (range, 8–22 years), and 52.3% of the subjects were girls. The mean SE was −2.07 ± 2.45 D (range, −17 to 6.13 D). No differences in LT (3.45 ± 0.19 vs. 3.45 ± 0.18 mm; t-test, P = 0.70) or rLT (0.142 ± 0.01 vs. 0.142 ± 0.01 [arbitrary unit]; t-test, P = 0.82) were found between first- and second-born twins. 
Table 1 summarizes the phenotypes of interest among first-born twins. MZ and DZ twins were of similar age (14.0 ± 3.0 vs. 13.8 ± 3.1 years; t-test, P = 0.33). No significant differences between MZ and DZ twins were identified in LT (3.45 ± 0.18 mm vs. 3.45 ± 0.19 mm; t-test, P = 0.70) or rLT (0.141 ± 0.01 vs. 0.142 ± 0.01; t-test, P = 0.31). Among 768 first-born twins (361 boys and 407 girls), the mean LT and rLT were 3.45 ± 0.19 mm and 0.142 ± 0.01. rLT had an approximately normal distribution with mild skew toward lower values (skewness-kurtosis test for normality, LT: P for skewness = 0.082, P for kurtosis = 0.658; rLT: P for skewness < 0.001, P for kurtosis = 0.758, Fig. 1). 
Table 1.
 
Phenotypic Characteristics of Twin Pairs by Zygosity
Table 1.
 
Phenotypic Characteristics of Twin Pairs by Zygosity
N (pairs) Age LT (mm)* rLT (LT/AL)
Monozygotic twin
 Female-female 257 14.2 (3.1) 3.46 (0.18) 0.143 (0.01)
 Male-male 225 13.9 (2.9) 3.44 (0.18) 0.139 (0.01)
 Subtotal 482 14.0 (3.0) 3.45 (0.18) 0.141 (0.01)
Dizygotic twin
 Female-female 68 14.6 (3.0) 3.46 (0.19) 0.144 (0.01)
 Male-male 64 13.9 (2.9) 3.46 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
 Opposite sex 154 13.5 (3.1) 3.44 (0.20) 0.142 (0.01)
 Subtotal 286 13.8 (3.1) 3.45 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
Total 768 14.0 (3.0) 3.45 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
Figure 1.
 
Distribution of the lens thickness (A) and relative lens thickness (B) in the right eyes of first-born twins.
Figure 1.
 
Distribution of the lens thickness (A) and relative lens thickness (B) in the right eyes of first-born twins.
The sex- and age-adjusted intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, equivalent to the pairwise correlation coefficients) between twin pairs were found to be 0.90 for both LT and rLT among MZ twins. Among DZ twins, the ICCs for LT and rLT were found to be 0.39 and 0.40, respectively (Table 2). The pairwise correlations among MZ and DZ twins are demonstrated in scatterplots in Figure 2. The variation of ICCs was significantly greater in DZ twins (indicated by wider 95% CI). As the ICCs for LT and rLT among MZ twins were greater than twice that for DZ twins, an ADE model was initially utilized for maximum-likelihood modeling. Statistical modeling suggested that an AE model best fit both the LT and rLT data, whereas the effect of D was not significant (reduced model, χ 2 test, P = 0.287 for LT, P = 0.657 for rLT). Table 3 shows the goodness-of-fit parameters in the best-fitting models for both LT and rLT. Additive genetic effects (A) could explain 89.5% (95% CI: 87.8%–91.0%) of the observed variation in LT, and unique environment (E) the remaining 10.5% (95% CI: 9.0%–12.2%). Thus, in this case, the heritability of LT was 89.5%. For rLT, in which the effect of AL was adjusted for, the heritability remained high (89.3%, 95% CI: 89.2%–89.3%), with E explaining remaining 10.7% (95% CI: 10.7%–11.4%) of the variation. 
Table 2.
 
Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for LT and rLT Adjusting for Age and Sex
Table 2.
 
Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for LT and rLT Adjusting for Age and Sex
N (pairs) LT rLT
MZ Pairs
 By sex
  Female-female 257 0.89 (0.86–0.91) 0.89 (0.87–0.92)
  Male-male 225 0.91 (0.88–0.93) 0.90 (0.88–0.93)
 By age group
  8–12 years 165 0.88 (0.85–0.91) 0.93 (0.91–0.95)
  13–17 years 245 0.90 (0.87–0.92) 0.88 (0.85–0.91)
  18–22 years 72 0.90 (0.84–0.93) 0.87 (0.81–0.92)
 Subtotal 482 0.90 (0.88–0.91) 0.90 (0.88–0.91)
DZ Pairs
 By sex
  Female-female 68 0.43 (0.25–0.62) 0.45 (0.27–0.64)
  Male-male 64 0.47 (0.29–0.66) 0.42 (0.23–0.62)
  Opposite sex 154 0.34 (0.22–0.49) 0.37 (0.24–0.51)
 By age group
  8–12 years 97 0.34 (0.18–0.53) 0.38 (0.22–0.55)
  13–17 years 154 0.36 (0.24–0.51) 0.37 (0.24–0.51)
  18–22 years 35 0.51 (0.27–0.74) 0.40 (0.16–0.68)
 Subtotal 286 0.39 (0.30–0.49) 0.40 (0.31–0.50)
Total 768 0.71 (0.68–0.75) 0.73 (0.69–0.76)
Figure 2.
 
Intrapair correlation for lens thickness and relative lens thickness in MZ and DZ twin pairs in the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.
Figure 2.
 
Intrapair correlation for lens thickness and relative lens thickness in MZ and DZ twin pairs in the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.
Table 3.
 
Genetic and Environmental Effects Estimated by Maximum-Likelihood Model
Table 3.
 
Genetic and Environmental Effects Estimated by Maximum-Likelihood Model
Variables/ Models A (95% CI) D (95% CI) E (95% CI) −2LL df Δχ 2 Δdf P*
LT (mm)
 ADE 0.698 (0.294, 0.908) 0.197 (0, 0.600) 0.105 (0.091, 0.122) −1737.006 1530
AE 0.895 (0.878, 0.910) 0.105 (0.090, 0.122) −1735.871 1531 1.135 1 0.287
 E 1.000 −8561.385 × 1012 1532 Incalculable 2 Incalculable
rLT (AU)
 ADE 0.807 (0.798, 0.807) 0.085 (0.085, 0.085) 0.108 (0.108, 0.117) −10,155.317 1530
AE 0.893 (0.892, 0.893) 0.107 (0.107, 0.114) −10,155.120 1531 0.198 1 0.657
 E 1.000 −9311.120 1532 844.197 2 <0.001
Discussion
This is the first study conducted specifically to investigate the heritability of LT measured using OLCR in a large population-based twin cohort. We found that nearly 90% of the variation in LT was attributable to genetic effects, and that this heritability estimate remained high even after adjustment for the influence of AL. Our study provides evidence that the population variation in the LT in young healthy subjects is predominantly genetically determined, and that genetic factors may play a significant role in the growth of lens in young Chinese populations. 
These subjects were recruited from a population-based twin registry, and therefore the influence of selection bias on the heritability results was likely minimal. 19 Zygosity was determined by microsatellite polymorphic markers in all same-sex twins, and therefore misclassification of zygosity was extremely unlikely. The LT and SE distributions in our twin cohort were comparable to other young Chinese populations. 20,21 This similarity suggests that our twin cohort was likely representative and the data were generalizable. 
Only one twin study has previously reported the heritability of LT. 22 This study was conducted in a small sample of Danish twins, and the LT was measured by A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US). Heritability of LT was estimated to be 90% to 93%, with DE being the best-fitting model. The Danish study was limited by the use of A-scan US, which may be more subject to measurement error, since A-scan US has been shown to be insensitive to LT changes less than or equal to 0.75 D. 23 In our study, LT and AL measurements were carried out using OLCR, a method found to yield anterior segment measurements with excellent accuracy and repeatability. 14,24 Such accurate measurements of LT would be expected to lead to more reliable heritability results. The best-fitting DE model in this case was somewhat unusual, since most other heritable ocular traits are best specified by the AE model. 8,25,26 Hill et al. 27 summarized empirical evidence for the existence of nonadditive genetic variation across a range of species and showed their theoretical results, based upon the distribution of allele frequencies under neutral and other population genetic models, that demonstrate a high proportion of additive variance would be expected, regardless of the amount of dominance or epistasis at the individual loci. Nevertheless, we cannot rule out the possibility that the LT phenotypes were governed by different genes in these two studies. Despite differences in the best-fitting models, both the Danish study and ours indicated that the LT is largely genetically determined. 
We previously reported a 60% to 90% heritability for PAC-related traits such as iris thickness and ACD. 8,25 ACD, which was associated with drainage angle width, has been recognized as a crucial anatomic risk factor for angle closure. 8 Variation in thickness and profile of the iris are major variables determining the proximity of the peripheral iris and the trabecular meshwork. 25 Variability of LT also plays a key role in this relationship. Many studies have supported the hypothesis that a thicker lens would create a more anteriorly located contact between the iris and anterior lens surface and therefore aggravate the pupillary block, resulting in a shallower anterior chamber and a more crowded angle. 13,28 In the current study, we observed high heritability of LT, which suggests that LT would be a suitable candidate for gene identification using quantitative trait linkage analysis. Given that LT is also measurable in a highly repeatable fashion by OLCR, it could be studied as an intermediate phenotype for angle closure in achieving a more complete understanding of the genetic and environmental effects driving the development of PAC. To adjust for the influence of AL on LT, we employed the concept of rLT, a ratio of LT and AL, and found that the rLT was also strongly heritable. This high heritability appeared to suggest that the anterior positioning of lens may be genetically determined, in addition to the LT variation secondary to AL changes. 
However, we should interpret the results of the current study cautiously. All participants were children and adolescents aged 8 to 22 years. These children, who are generally free of confounding factors related to LT (e.g., cataract, diabetes, medications, and glaucoma), may be an ideal study population to provide more accurate normative data on LT. However, our inference that our findings are relevant to future risk of PAC is based on the assumption that thicker lens in childhood indicates a propensity to develop a thicker lens in later life. Limited data suggest that PAC develops over a 5- to 10-year period in only 10% to 20% of people with narrow angles. 29,30 Thus, while there may be strong genetic control over the anatomic characteristics associated with PAC, there may well be other factors (either genetic or environmental) that determine an individual's predisposition to PAC. Given that this observation was based on a very young cohort, in whom angle closure is extremely uncommon, further investigation is needed in older adults. 
On the other hand, previous population-based studies have identified the associations of LT with cataracts in adults. Having a thicker lens conferred increased risk of developing nuclear opacities, whereas people with smaller lens were more likely to have cortical cataracts. 31,32 Subsequent study in experimental animals confirmed the effect of intraocular oxygen level on the rate of lens growth, suggesting a link between lens size and cataracts. 33 While the causal relationship between LT and cataracts remains unclear, further studies are needed to examine whether LT is an intermediate phenotype for age-related cataracts. 
Heritability, as an important population parameter indicating the relative genetic contribution to a disease or trait, assists researchers in deciding whether to pursue a more detailed analysis of genetic variants at the molecular level. 34 The high heritability in the current study indicates that most of the variation in LT that is observed in the present twin population is caused by variation in genotypes. However, one has to cautious in interpreting the high heritability; heritability is an estimate of the genetic and environmental contributions to the variance of a phenotype rather than their contribution to any individual's phenotype. The estimation on heritability is population specific and should be understood within a population in a specific environment. 34,35  
In conclusion, we found that the LT and rLT were both highly heritable, providing evidence for a genetic component in the etiology of angle closure in young Chinese populations. We believe that our findings are relevant to understanding the mechanisms controlling ocular development, particularly of the anterior segment. Identifying genes controlling lens parameters may illuminate the underlying mechanisms of anterior segment development that cause PAC. Further studies are needed to confirm the heritability of LT in older populations and in other ethnic groups. 
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Footnotes
 Supported by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (81125007), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Fundamental Research Funds for the State Key Laboratory.
Footnotes
 Disclosure: P. Shen, None; X. Ding, None; Y. Zheng, None; N.G. Congdon, None; M. He, None
Figure 1.
 
Distribution of the lens thickness (A) and relative lens thickness (B) in the right eyes of first-born twins.
Figure 1.
 
Distribution of the lens thickness (A) and relative lens thickness (B) in the right eyes of first-born twins.
Figure 2.
 
Intrapair correlation for lens thickness and relative lens thickness in MZ and DZ twin pairs in the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.
Figure 2.
 
Intrapair correlation for lens thickness and relative lens thickness in MZ and DZ twin pairs in the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.
Table 1.
 
Phenotypic Characteristics of Twin Pairs by Zygosity
Table 1.
 
Phenotypic Characteristics of Twin Pairs by Zygosity
N (pairs) Age LT (mm)* rLT (LT/AL)
Monozygotic twin
 Female-female 257 14.2 (3.1) 3.46 (0.18) 0.143 (0.01)
 Male-male 225 13.9 (2.9) 3.44 (0.18) 0.139 (0.01)
 Subtotal 482 14.0 (3.0) 3.45 (0.18) 0.141 (0.01)
Dizygotic twin
 Female-female 68 14.6 (3.0) 3.46 (0.19) 0.144 (0.01)
 Male-male 64 13.9 (2.9) 3.46 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
 Opposite sex 154 13.5 (3.1) 3.44 (0.20) 0.142 (0.01)
 Subtotal 286 13.8 (3.1) 3.45 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
Total 768 14.0 (3.0) 3.45 (0.19) 0.142 (0.01)
Table 2.
 
Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for LT and rLT Adjusting for Age and Sex
Table 2.
 
Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for LT and rLT Adjusting for Age and Sex
N (pairs) LT rLT
MZ Pairs
 By sex
  Female-female 257 0.89 (0.86–0.91) 0.89 (0.87–0.92)
  Male-male 225 0.91 (0.88–0.93) 0.90 (0.88–0.93)
 By age group
  8–12 years 165 0.88 (0.85–0.91) 0.93 (0.91–0.95)
  13–17 years 245 0.90 (0.87–0.92) 0.88 (0.85–0.91)
  18–22 years 72 0.90 (0.84–0.93) 0.87 (0.81–0.92)
 Subtotal 482 0.90 (0.88–0.91) 0.90 (0.88–0.91)
DZ Pairs
 By sex
  Female-female 68 0.43 (0.25–0.62) 0.45 (0.27–0.64)
  Male-male 64 0.47 (0.29–0.66) 0.42 (0.23–0.62)
  Opposite sex 154 0.34 (0.22–0.49) 0.37 (0.24–0.51)
 By age group
  8–12 years 97 0.34 (0.18–0.53) 0.38 (0.22–0.55)
  13–17 years 154 0.36 (0.24–0.51) 0.37 (0.24–0.51)
  18–22 years 35 0.51 (0.27–0.74) 0.40 (0.16–0.68)
 Subtotal 286 0.39 (0.30–0.49) 0.40 (0.31–0.50)
Total 768 0.71 (0.68–0.75) 0.73 (0.69–0.76)
Table 3.
 
Genetic and Environmental Effects Estimated by Maximum-Likelihood Model
Table 3.
 
Genetic and Environmental Effects Estimated by Maximum-Likelihood Model
Variables/ Models A (95% CI) D (95% CI) E (95% CI) −2LL df Δχ 2 Δdf P*
LT (mm)
 ADE 0.698 (0.294, 0.908) 0.197 (0, 0.600) 0.105 (0.091, 0.122) −1737.006 1530
AE 0.895 (0.878, 0.910) 0.105 (0.090, 0.122) −1735.871 1531 1.135 1 0.287
 E 1.000 −8561.385 × 1012 1532 Incalculable 2 Incalculable
rLT (AU)
 ADE 0.807 (0.798, 0.807) 0.085 (0.085, 0.085) 0.108 (0.108, 0.117) −10,155.317 1530
AE 0.893 (0.892, 0.893) 0.107 (0.107, 0.114) −10,155.120 1531 0.198 1 0.657
 E 1.000 −9311.120 1532 844.197 2 <0.001
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