August 2003
Volume 44, Issue 8
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Retinal Cell Biology  |   August 2003
Comparative Proteome Analysis of Native Differentiated and Cultured Dedifferentiated Human RPE Cells
Author Affiliations
  • Claudia S. Alge
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and the
    Clinical Cooperation Group Ophthalmogenetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; the
  • Sabine Suppmann
    Clinical Cooperation Group Ophthalmogenetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; the
    German Research Center of Environment and Health, Oberschleissheim, Germany; and the
  • Siegfried G. Priglinger
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and the
  • Aljoscha S. Neubauer
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and the
  • Christian A. May
    Department of Anatomy II, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
  • Stefanie Hauck
    Clinical Cooperation Group Ophthalmogenetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; the
    German Research Center of Environment and Health, Oberschleissheim, Germany; and the
  • Ulrich Welge-Lussen
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and the
  • Marius Ueffing
    Clinical Cooperation Group Ophthalmogenetics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; the
    German Research Center of Environment and Health, Oberschleissheim, Germany; and the
  • Anselm Kampik
    From the Department of Ophthalmology and the
    Department of Anatomy II, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science August 2003, Vol.44, 3629-3641. doi:10.1167/iovs.02-1225
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      Claudia S. Alge, Sabine Suppmann, Siegfried G. Priglinger, Aljoscha S. Neubauer, Christian A. May, Stefanie Hauck, Ulrich Welge-Lussen, Marius Ueffing, Anselm Kampik; Comparative Proteome Analysis of Native Differentiated and Cultured Dedifferentiated Human RPE Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(8):3629-3641. doi: 10.1167/iovs.02-1225.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

purpose. Dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This study was designed to improve the understanding of RPE cell dedifferentiation in vitro. The protein expression pattern of native differentiated RPE cells was compared with that of cultured, thereby dedifferentiated, RPE cells.

methods. Differentiated native human RPE cells and monolayers of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells were processed for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Total cellular proteins were separated by isoelectric focusing using immobilized pH gradients (IPG 3–10) and electrophoresis on 9% to 15% gradient polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were visualized by silver staining. Silver-stained gel spots were excised, digested in situ, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS). The resultant peptide mass fingerprints were searched against the public domain NCBInr, MSDB, and EnsemblC databases to identify the respective proteins.

results. One hundred seventy nine protein spots were analyzed and classified into functional categories. Proteins associated with highly specialized functions of the RPE, which are required for interaction with photoreceptor cells, including RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), were absent in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells, whereas proteins involved in phagocytosis and exocytosis, including cathepsin D and clathrin were still present. Dedifferentiated RPE cells displayed a strong shift toward increased expression of proteins associated with cell shape, cell adhesion, and stress fiber formation, including cytokeratin 19, gelsolin, and tropomyosins, and also acquired increased expression of factors involved in translation and tumorigenic signal transduction such as annexin I and translation initiation factor (eIF)-5A.

conclusions. Dedifferentiation of human RPE cells in vitro results in downregulation of proteins associated with highly specialized functions of the RPE and induces the differential expression of proteins related to cytoskeleton organization, cell shape, cell migration, and mediation of proliferative signal transduction. These in vitro data suggest that the dedifferentiated status of RPE cells per se may initiate PVR. Further investigation of candidate proteins may identify additional targets for treatment or prevention of diseases associated with RPE dedifferentiation.

In the adult, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a mosaic of polygonal, postmitotic cells interposed between the choroid and the neural retina and serves as the outer blood-retinal barrier regulating retinal homeostasis and visual function. 1 2 The apical side of RPE cells closely associates with the outer segments of cones and rods, whereas the base of the cell attaches to Bruch’s membrane. Normally RPE cells form a quiescent monolayer, but they retain the ability to divide and do so when placed in culture 2 3 or when participating in wound repair. RPE cells proliferate readily in vivo in response to a variety of stimuli such as photocoagulation and/or retinal cryotherapy. 4 5 In mild injuries, involving only the RPE and photoreceptor cells, proliferating RPE cells quickly reestablish a continuous monolayer. 6 7 However, after severe injury that may be associated with ocular trauma or retinal detachment, RPE cells can be detached and consequently found in the vitreous. Once in this new environment, RPE cells have been shown to dedifferentiate and exhibit a pseudometaplastic transformation into fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped cells, which become actively dividing and migratory. 1 8 9 10 11 These processes are considered to be key events in the onset of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  
In an animal model of PVR, Radtke et al. 19 demonstrated that when RPE cells are injected into the vitreous, they cause the formation of contractile vitreal and periretinal membranes. However, this effect is more pronounced when cultured, thus dedifferentiated, RPE cells are injected than when freshly isolated native RPE cells are placed in the vitreous cavity. 
Adult human RPE cells in culture escape growth arrest and fail to maintain a differentiated morphology and 20 rapidly dedifferentiate at the molecular level, and markers of RPE differentiation such as RPE65 and RET-PE 10 quickly become undetectable. 21 22 It has also been reported that expression of intermediate filaments is altered when the cells take on fusiform morphology 23 24 and that polarity may be partially lost. 25 26 27 Thus, dedifferentiated proliferative RPE cell cultures have been used to study the very early phases of PVR, both in vitro and in vivo. 16 19 28 29 30 31 32  
However, the molecular changes associated with dedifferentiation of RPE cells per se are not well understood, and to our knowledge, the overall cellular proteome of native differentiated RPE cells has not been characterized to date. The goal of the present study was to gain better understanding of the process of RPE cell dedifferentiation in vitro. We therefore took a proteomic approach to investigate the shift in the overall protein expression pattern between differentiated native human RPE cells and dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells. With this approach we attempted to screen for the most prominent dedifferentiation-related changes in several functional groups simultaneously. The proteomic changes illustrated in this study clearly reflect the dynamic changes in the protein expression pattern associated with dedifferentiation of the RPE. Some of the identified proteins have been described to be associated with RPE dedifferentiation or PVR, whereas other proteins may be newly linked with RPE dedifferentiation and proliferation and have not yet been described in the RPE. 
Materials and Methods
Isolation of Human RPE Cells
Eyes from eight human donors were obtained from the Munich University Hospital Eye Bank and processed within 4 to 16 hours after death. The average donor age was 46 ± 6 years. None of the donors had a known history of eye disease. Methods for securing human tissue were humane, included proper consent and approval; complied with the Declaration of Helsinki, and were approved by the local ethics committee. Human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were harvested according to a procedure described previously. 33 In brief, whole eyes were thoroughly cleansed in 0.9% NaCl solution, immersed in 5% poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-iodine (Jodobac; Bode-Chemie, Hamburg, Germany), and rinsed again in the sodium-chloride solution. The anterior segment from each donor eye was removed, and the posterior poles were examined with the aid of a binocular stereomicroscope to confirm the absence of gross retinal disease. Next, the neural retinas were carefully peeled away from the RPE-choroid-sclera with fine forceps. The eyecup was rinsed with Ca2+ and Mg2+-free Hanks’ balanced salt solution and filled with 0.25% trypsin (Invitrogen/Gibco, Karlsruhe, Germany) for 30 minutes at 37°C. The trypsin was carefully aspirated and replaced with Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM; Biochrom, Berlin, Germany) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS; Biochrom). The medium was gently agitated with a pipette, releasing the RPE into the medium by avoiding damage to Bruch’s membrane. The suspended RPE cells were then transferred to a 35-mm2 Petri dish and checked by microscope for cross contamination. 
Human RPE Cell Culture
The RPE cell suspension was transferred to a 50-mL flask (Falcon, Wiesbaden, Germany) containing 20 mL of DMEM (Biochrom) supplemented with 20% FCS (Biochrom) and maintained at 37°C and 5% CO2. Epithelial origin was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (CK) using a pan-CK antibody (Sigma-Aldrich, Deisenhofen, Germany). 34 The cells were tested and found free of contaminating macrophages (anti-CD11; Sigma) and endothelial cells (anti-von Willebrand factor, Sigma-Aldrich; data not shown). After reaching confluence, primary RPE cells were subcultured to passages 2 to 3 and maintained in DMEM (Biochrom) supplemented with 10% FCS (Biochrom) at 37°C and 5% CO2. Cells were grown on plastic 10-cm tissue culture dishes until they had reached no more than 80% to 90% confluence, to assure that they are still in a proliferative, presumably dedifferentiated, state, and were then maintained under serum-free conditions for 48 hours to reduce the influence of serum stimulation. 
Sample Preparation
For preparation of protein lysates from native RPE cell preparations, suspensions of freshly isolated human RPE cells were transferred to a 2.0-mL microcentrifuge tube and washed twice in Ca2+-Mg2+-free 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4), followed by centrifugation at 800 rpm for 5 minutes. Cell pellets were then resuspended in nanopure water containing a protease inhibitor cocktail (Complete Mini; Roche Diagnostics, Inc., Mannheim, Germany) and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Cells were then disrupted by grinding with a Teflon glass homogenizer (Braun Biotech International, Melsungen, Germany), lyophilized, and stored at −80°C for future use. Proteins were solubilized in denaturing lysis buffer containing 9 M urea (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), 2 M thiourea (Merck), 4% 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS; Sigma-Aldrich), 1% dithioerytherol (Merck), 2.5 μM EGTA (Sigma-Aldrich), 2.5 μM EDTA (Sigma-Aldrich), and protease inhibitors for 4 hours at room temperature (RT). To minimize interindividual differences in native human RPE, protein lysates from five age-matched donor eyes were pooled. 
For isolation of whole cellular protein extracts from RPE cultures, cells were washed once with serum-free medium, followed by a wash in 1× PBS (pH 7.4) and a third wash in 0.5× PBS to reduce contamination with salts. Subsequently, cells were collected and lysed in denaturing lysis buffer, as described earlier. Lysates were then cleared by centrifugation at 22,000g for 45 minutes at RT. Protein concentrations were determined by the Bradford protein assay reagent (Bio-Rad, Munich, Germany). Freshly prepared lysate containing 125 μg total protein was loaded onto each gel. 
Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis
First-dimension isoelectric focusing (IEF) was performed with precast 18-cm immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips (18 cm Immobiline DryStrip 3-10 NL; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Braunschweig, Germany). IPG strips were rehydrated overnight with 125 μg protein diluted to 350 μL with reswelling solution (9 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4% CHAPS, 2.5 μM EGTA, 2.5 μM EDTA, 1% DTE, 4 mM Tris, 0.25% (wt/vol) bromophenol blue (BPB), and 0.7% (vol/vol) IEF ampholytic carriers (Pharmalytes pH 3–10; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). IEF was performed at 20°C with a commercial system (Multiphore II; Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), with the initial voltage limited to 50 V (2 hours) and then increased stepwise to 8000 V and held until 101 kV/h was reached. Immediately after IEF, the IPG strips were equilibrated for 10 minutes in buffer containing 6 M urea, 2% SDS, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 30% glycerol, and a trace of BPB under reducing conditions (65 mM DTE added), followed by another 10-minute incubation in the same buffer under alkylating conditions (135 mM iodoacetamide added). Equilibrated IPG strips were then placed on top of 9% to 15% linear gradient polyacrylamide gels 20 cm × 18 cm × 0.75 mm in size and embedded in 0.5% agarose (Serva, Heidelberg, Germany) in running buffer (384 mM glycin, 50 mM Tris, 0.2% SDS) and electrophoresed at a constant current of 8 mA/gel at 10°C, until the dye front had reached the bottom of the gel (approximately 16 hours). All gels were silver stained 35 and dried between cellophane sheets. 
Image Analysis
Of the 12 silver-stained gels per cell type (native RPE; dedifferentiated cultured RPE), the 3 best focusing results were selected for calculating a virtual average gel on computer (Z3 software package; Compugen, Haifa, Israel). The computational calculation of virtual average gels reduced spot variations in individual gels from one sample resulting from limitations in two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reproducibility. Because spot integration of more than three gels from a given sample resulted in reduced quality of the virtual average gel, no more than three 2-DE gels per cell type were included in the virtual average gel. To create the virtual average gel, silver-stained 2-DE gels were scanned at 12 bit/300 dpi. Scans were then matched for each of the two cell types, using 42 to 56 common spots as landmarks, and processed on computer (in the Z3 Raw Master Gel [RMG]mode; Compugen). Next, spot detection was performed on each RMG by image analysis software (PD-Quest; Bio-Rad). RMGs from a given experimental condition (differentiated native versus dedifferentiated cultured RPE) were analyzed manually to determine quantitative and qualitative differences in protein expression, because computer-assisted software comparison failed to integrate the rather diverse protein patterns stemming from differentiated native versus dedifferentiated cultured RPE. 
In-Gel Digestion and MALDI-TOF Analysis
Central areas (2 × 2 mm) of silver stained spots were excised from dried 2-DE gels, transferred to 96-well plates (Nunc 22-260; Nunc, Wiesbaden, Germany), rehydrated in 100 μL nanopure water for a minimum of 30 minutes, destained with 30 mM potassium ferricyanide (Sigma-Aldrich) and 100 mM sodium thiosulfate (Merck), 36 and washed three times in 100 μL 40% acetonitrile (15 minutes each) to extract residual water. Acetonitrile was then removed, and a 10-μL digestion solution containing 0.01 μg/μL trypsin (Sequencing Grade Modified Trypsin; Promega, Mannheim, Germany) in 1 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) was added for enzymatic cleavage. 
After incubation under humid conditions at 37°C for 12 hours, 0.5 μL aliquots of the tryptic digests were mixed with 0.5 μL matrix consisting of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Sigma-Aldrich; 20 mg/mL in 20% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid [TFA]) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland; 20 mg/mL in 20% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA) at a 9:1 ratio (vol/vol) and spotted onto a 400-μm anchor steel target (Bruker-Daltronik, Bremen, Germany). MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprints were obtained on a mass spectrometer (Reflex III; Bruker-Daltronik) equipped with an ion source. Mass analyses obtained in the positive ion reflector mode were run automatically. For calibration, angiotensin-2-acetate (Mr 1046.54), substance P (Mr 1347.74), bombesin (Mr 1619.82), and ACTH 18-3 (Mr 2465.20) were recorded. Internal calibration using peptides resulting from autodigestion of trypsin was also performed. 
Database Research
Trypsin specifically cleaves proteins at the C terminus of lysine and arginine residues, thereby generating a fingerprint of peptide masses that can be searched in databases. Database searches were performed with the assistance of commercial software (Mascot software; Matrix Science, London, UK). 37 Parameter settings were 150 ppm mass accuracy with one miscleavage allowed, and the search was performed in all available mammalian and, in assorted cases, all eukaryotic sequences. Peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) were searched for matches with the virtually generated tryptic protein masses of the protein databases NCBInr (http://ncbi.nih.gov/ National Center for Biotechnical Information, Bethesda, MD), MSDB (csc-fserve.hh.med.ic.ac.uk/msdb.html/ Proteonomics Department, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College, London, UK), and EnsemblC (http://www.ensembl.org/ Sanger Centre, Hinxton, UK). A protein was regarded as identified, if the following four criteria were fulfilled: (1) the MOWSE score 38 (http:www.hgmp.mrc.ac.uk/ Molecular Weight Search, Human Genome Mapping Project Resource Centre, Sanger Centre) was above the 5% significance threshold for the respective database, (2) the matched peptide masses were abundant in the spectrum, (3) the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and the molecular weight (Mr) of the search result could be correlated with the 2-DE position of the corresponding spot, and (4) the matched sequence did not contain more than 20% uncleaved peptides. Functional classification was based on the classification provided in the TrEMBL (http://embl-heidelberg.de/ European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany) and SwissProt protein knowledge databases (http://www.expasy.org/ Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva, Switzerland). All databases are provided in the public domain by the host institutions. 
Results
2-DE and Image Analysis
It was the main objective of this study to identify those proteins that are differentially expressed as a result of RPE dedifferentiation in vitro. To probe this proteomic shift, 2-DE gels of differentiated native and dedifferentiated cultured human RPE cells were analyzed. Figures 1 and 2 show the computationally estimated average RMG images of differentiated native RPE cells (Fig. 1) and of dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells (Fig. 2) . Spot identification by the image analysis software (PD-Quest; Bio-Rad) allowed for the resolution of 1985 to 2014 spots in the RMGs of both cell types. Although 2-DE gels from differentiated native and dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells exhibited certain identical protein expression profiles, the images were too different to apply a computational comparative image analysis. For this reason, RMGs were manually compared, and the most distinct differentially expressed proteins were chosen for protein identification. Furthermore, randomly selected high-abundance protein spots found in both cell types were excised to serve as landmark proteins. 
Protein Identification
Proteins were identified from 71 of 88 gel spots excised from 2-DE gels of native RPE and from 62 of 91 gel spots cut from the cultured RPE cell samples, for an average spot identification yield of 74%. For 20% of the remainder, the MS data were of insufficient quality, and protein identification was not possible. Another 3.1% could not be identified because of contamination of the tryptic digests with keratins, and no identity could be assigned to a further 2.9% despite good MS data, most likely because there was none of the respective sequences in the databases used. 
Identified proteins, accession numbers, and SwissProt entry names are listed in Tables 1 1 and 2 2 2 . Theoretical Mr, pI, percentage of sequence coverage, probability based MOWSE score, and functional category are also included. In addition, the spot numbers are assigned on the individual RMG images in Figures 1 and 2
As seen before from 2-DE analysis, 25 proteins of a total of 90 different proteins identified were found in multiple spots on several positions on the gel. For example, two spots were found at the same Mr but separated by approximately 0.5 pH units (N62,N63 cathepsin D; N31,N35 F1-ATPase-β chain), and one protein was found at different Mrs but with the same pI (C4,C18; glucosidase II). Finally, four proteins were identified at slightly different Mrs and pIs (N58,N61 CRALBP; N5,N7 mitofilin; C45,C46 14-3-3 protein; C41,C42,C43 tropomyosin alpha, tropomyosin 4, tropomyosin alpha 3 chain.), suggesting the presence of different isoforms. These patterns clearly differed from a more frequently observed configuration, where spots were aligned like strings of pearls. This was observed for 15 proteins, which are represented with a series of two to three different spots, close together in a row (e.g., N14,N15,N19 annexin VI; N27,N28 S-arrestin; N22,N23 RPE65; C29,C30 α-enolase; C32,C33 CK 18). Such a series of spots is probably due to glutamine deamidation, chemically induced during the 2-DE procedure and resulting in differentially charged proteins rather than different protein isoforms. 39 We also mapped one protein (N1 cathepsin D) at a position on the gel that indicated a greater Mr than predicted and another two spots (C11 LIM-motif containing protein kinase; C31 eIF-4AI) appeared at a pI different from the predicted one. In addition, retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor (N34) was annotated at a position that differed in Mr and pI from the predicted values. Computer assisted sequence analysis identified this protein as a bovine isoform of RPE65, in this case, probably representing a partially processed stable fragment with different Mr and pI. 
Comparison of the Differentiated Native RPE Proteome with That of Dedifferentiated Cultured RPE Cells
Overall the proteome of native and cultured RPE cells displayed a high degree of similarity, but at the same time striking distinguishing marks were apparent. Proteins were defined as differentially expressed if they could not be located to the corresponding position on the 2-DE gel of the other cell type. Expression below or above the detection limit of 2-DE technology was referred to as down- or upregulation of the respective proteins. 
Expression Unchanged
In a first step, randomly selected high-abundance proteins that were located in identical positions and expression levels on gels of both groups were excised to serve as landmark proteins (Tables 1 1 and 2) 2 2 . Most of these proteins were found to be involved in metabolism (e.g., N71,C35 GADPH; N40,C55 triosephosphate isomerase). A high degree of similarity was also observed for molecular chaperones (e.g., N12,C12 heat shock 71 kDa protein) and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., N45,C49 glutathione S-transferase; N56,C50 peroxiredoxin 2). Good matching was found for the Ca2+-binding proteins annexin V (N59,C44) and annexin VI (N19,C8) and for several proteins involved in signal transduction (e.g., N56,C38; GTP-binding regulatory protein; N52,C45 14-3-3 protein epsilon). A good correlation between differentiated native and dedifferentiated cultured RPE was also observed regarding f1-ATPase (N31) and ATP synthase (N48), two mitochondrial enzymes contributing to oxidative phosphorylation, as well as for CK 8 (N53,C24), an intermediate filament protein characteristic of cells of epithelial origin. Furthermore, the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D (N62,N63,C58) was identified in both cell types, although it appeared to be expressed at a lower level in dedifferentiated, cultured RPE. 
Proteins Downregulated or Absent in Dedifferentiated Cultured RPE
Although most of the metabolic enzymes identified could be found in both, differentiated and dedifferentiated RPE, a considerable group of metabolic enzymes expressed in the native RPE proteome could not be located in the corresponding positions on 2-DE gels of dedifferentiated RPE (Table 3) . These included functions in glycolysis (N29 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase; N32 neuronal gamma enolase), in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (N54 succinyl-CoA ligase), and in protein metabolism (N26; prenylcysteine lyase). High-abundance proteins exclusively identified in differentiated RPE included interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (N3; IRBP), an all-trans retinol and 11-cis retinal-binding protein located in the interphotoreceptor matrix, cellular retinol-binding protein (N51, CRBP), RPE65 (N22,N23) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (N58,N61; CRALBP), all of which are involved in retinoid metabolism. Furthermore, we could not map the visual cycle proteins cone arrestin (N33,N36), S-arrestin (N27,N28), recoverin (N49), and phosducin (N60), as well as the mitochondrial motor protein mitofilin (N5,N6,N7) in 2-DE gels of cultured RPE. A significant difference was also observed in expression levels of mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transfer (N9,N10,N11 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase; N37 ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase core protein I). 
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured RPE
Marked upregulation in dedifferentiated RPE was found for proteins involved in cell shape, adhesion, exocytosis, and cytoskeleton formation. A summary of proteins upregulated in dedifferentiated RPE is provided in Table 4 . Specific functions are also included. 
These include the F-actin binding proteins α-actinin-1 (C3) and -4 (C57), which anchor F-actin to a variety of intracellular structures, as well as coactosin (C60). Further, an enhanced expression of vinculin (C19), a protein involved in cell adhesion, was observed. The expression of intermediate filament proteins was also altered. Both, differentiated and dedifferentiated RPE expressed CK 8 (N53,C24) and 18 (C32,C33), whereas dedifferentiated RPE cells also expressed CK-7 (C25) and -19 (C36). Furthermore, dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells expressed three isoforms of tropomyosin (C41, C42, and C43), a protein associated with stress fiber formation. Cultured cells also displayed a high abundance of ubiquitin-protein ligase (C17), annexin I (C47), annexin II (C48), translation initiation factor (eIF)-5A (C59), and eIF-4AI (C31), which are expressed at lower levels or are missing in native RPE. 
Discussion
Proteomics refers to the study of the proteome—that is, the total protein complement of a genome. Unlike the genome, which is essentially the same in all somatic cells of an organism, the proteome is a dynamic entity that is not only different in different cell types, but also changes with the physiological state of a cell. Ultimately, proteins expressed in dynamic compositions determine the phenotypic expression of genomic information. An important advantage of global protein expression profiling compared with individual gene regulation studies is the ability to monitor changes in several functional groups simultaneously. The objective of this study was to further elucidate differences in the protein expression profile of differentiated native compared with dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells and to use this information to clarify further the general understanding of ocular disease associated with RPE dedifferentiation. The data compiled in Tables 3 and 4 suggest that several biological processes were affected in the present study, and a few of these processes are discussed in this section. 
Proteins Downregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Phototransduction and Vitamin A Metabolism.
In accordance with previous studies, 21 22 40 41 we observed a downregulation of proteins associated with retinoid metabolism (CRALBP, CRBP, RPE65, and IRBP) and the visual cycle (arrestin, recoverin) in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells (for review, see Ref. 42 ). Whereas CRALBP, CRBP, and RPE65 are biochemical markers of RPE differentiation and rapidly become undetectable in culture, 21 40 41 identification of the latter ones in native RPE 2-DE gels may be due to photoreceptor cross-contamination of our RPE cell preparations. Despite extensive rinsing with PBS and repeated centrifugation at low speed, electron microscopy of consecutive sections revealed the presence of rod outer segment discs either in an intracellular location or bound to the RPE cell surface in our native RPE cell preparations (data not shown). The absence of IRBP, phosducin, brain-type fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, neuronal (gamma) enolase, and a retinal Ca2+-binding transporter in 2-DE gels from dedifferentiated RPE further substantiate this consideration. 
Energy Metabolism.
Differentiated native RPE also exhibited a high abundance of the respiratory chain components NADH-ubiqinone oxidoreductase and ubiqinol-cytochrome-c reductase, 43 both of which appeared to be downregulated in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells. This may reflect the reduced energy requirement profile under cell culture conditions as opposed to the high-energy requirements in native RPE. 44  
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
As expected, increased protein expression levels in dedifferentiated RPE cells can be attributed roughly to two functional groups: cytoskeleton remodeling and mediation of proliferative signal transduction. 
Cell Shape, Migration, and Adhesion.
Proteins associated with the keratin cytoskeleton, actin function, and maintenance of cell shape and motility appeared to be highly abundant in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells. In agreement with previous studies we observed an altered expression of intermediate filament proteins in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells. 23 45 CK 7, CK 8, CK 18, and CK 19 were highly abundant in dedifferentiated RPE, whereas cells isolated directly from the eye appeared to have no CK 7 and CK 19. CK 19 has been observed in proliferating RPE cells of patients with PVR 23 and has also been associated with migration in cultured human RPE cells. 45 46 In premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions, 47 CK 19 was correlated with infiltrating characteristics and invasive ability. 
In addition to alterations in intermediate filament expression, we observed an increased expression of cytoskeleton-organizing proteins in dedifferentiated RPE cells. These included α-actinin, which can bundle actin filaments into parallel arrays 48 ; gelsolin, an actin-binding protein that mediates rapid remodeling of actin filaments 49 ; tropomyosins, which are a main component of stress fibers in mesenchymal cells; and coactosin, a recently identified human F-actin-binding protein that has also been co-localized with stress fibers. 50 In cultured fibroblasts α-actinin, gelsolin, and tropomyosin have been shown to be heavily enriched in stress fibers, which mediate cell contraction and migration. 49 Furthermore, dedifferentiated RPE cells displayed an upregulation of vinculin, a protein involved in cell adhesion. 51 52 Upregulation of these components may simply reflect a reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton that is necessary for the cells to adopt to the new environment. Taken together, however, these changes may very well be coincidental with morphologic transformation and acquisition of migratory characteristics. 
Cell Proliferation.
A distinct observation from this study was the upregulation of proteins that can be attributed to cell proliferation. Annexins are a family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that seem to be important regulatory proteins with pluripotent and pleiotropic roles. All annexins share the property of binding to acidic phospholipids of cellular membranes, suggesting a role in membrane-related events, particularly in membrane organization, exocytosis, and endocytosis. 53 We observed a strong upregulation of annexin I and II in dedifferentiated RPE cells, whereas annexin V and VI expression levels remained unchanged. In contrast to the latter ones, annexin I is a substrate of protein kinases involved in the control of cell growth and is postulated to be involved in mitogenic signal transduction. 54 Annexin II is also phosphorylated by tyrosin kinases and by protein kinase C. 55 Both annexin I and II are significantly overexpressed in various human cancers, 53 56 57 during liver regeneration and transformation, 58 and in proliferating cultured cells. 54  
Translation initiation factor (eIF)-4AI and eIF-5A were expressed at detectable levels in dedifferentiated RPE cells exclusively. eIF-4AI and eIF-5A belong to a group of proteins that control the initiation phase of eukaryotic protein synthesis. A series of observations suggest that these factors may also play major roles in the regulation of cell proliferation 59 and transformation (for review, see Ref. 60 ) Protein biosynthesis is one of the last steps in the transmission of genetic information on the basis of which proteins are produced to maintain the specific biological function of a cell. Currently, an increasing body of data is emerging that shows that intervention in this pathway may be an additional target for antiproliferative strategies. 61 62  
Neither annexin I and II nor eIF-4AI and eIF-5A have been described to play a role in RPE proliferation or dedifferentiation. Clearly, further studies are needed to evaluate the significance of these factors in control of RPE proliferation in vitro and in the situation found in PVR. 
Conclusion
In the recent years, several studies have been attempted to analyze differential gene expression using cDNA-microarray technology. However, a cell’s physiological state is ultimately dictated at the protein level, and comparison of cDNA expression levels to protein levels often reveals discrepancies between these two global expression approaches, demonstrating that transcript levels cannot predict protein levels. 63 64 Certainly, the inability to detect low-abundance proteins is a major drawback of the 2-DE technology. Despite this limitation, we were able to detect striking differences between differentiated and dedifferentiated RPE cells. 
In the present study, we attempted to analyze dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells independent of ECM or serum stimulation in comparison with native differentiated RPE, and to draw conclusions about the potential role of RPE dedifferentiation in the onset of PVR. We are aware that the proper interpretation and clinical relevance of this study is limited by possible differences between cultured RPE cells and pseudometaplastic RPE cells in vivo, which are exposed to complex interactions that occur in the intraocular environment. 
However, in summary, our data suggest a series of functional changes in dedifferentiated RPE cells in vitro, associated with the loss of RPE-specific functions, which add up to adaptive changes in cell phenotype toward a mesenchymal, migratory morphology, together with a high capacity to proliferate. 
The results of this article focus attention onto a group of new proteins involved in cytoskeleton remodeling and cell proliferation, which may be involved in the initiation phase of PVR disease. Closer examination of these factors may lead to the definition of additional targets for treatment or prevention of ocular diseases associated with dedifferentiation and proliferation of RPE cells. 
 
Figure 1.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of differentiated native human RPE cells. Differentiated native human RPE cells were freshly isolated from human donor eyes and processed as described in Materials and Methods. Approximately 125 μg of protein was separated on an 18-cm, pH 3 to 10 nonlinear IPG strip, followed by 9% to 15% SDS-PAGE. The images are virtual average images calculated from three real gel images. Numbered spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and are listed in Table 1 1 .
Figure 1.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of differentiated native human RPE cells. Differentiated native human RPE cells were freshly isolated from human donor eyes and processed as described in Materials and Methods. Approximately 125 μg of protein was separated on an 18-cm, pH 3 to 10 nonlinear IPG strip, followed by 9% to 15% SDS-PAGE. The images are virtual average images calculated from three real gel images. Numbered spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and are listed in Table 1 1 .
Figure 2.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells of passage 3. RPE cells were grown on tissue culture plastic plates until they reached 80% to 90% confluence. Cells were then depleted of serum for 48 hours and harvested. Processing was as in Figure 1 . Numbered spots are identified in Table 2 2 2 .
Figure 2.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells of passage 3. RPE cells were grown on tissue culture plastic plates until they reached 80% to 90% confluence. Cells were then depleted of serum for 48 hours and harvested. Processing was as in Figure 1 . Numbered spots are identified in Table 2 2 2 .
Table 1.
 
Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Table 1.
 
Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Spot No. SwissProt Entry Name Accession No. Protein Name Organism MOWSE Score Mr (dalton) Sequ. Cov. (%) pI Functional Category
N1 CATD_HUMAN CATD_HUMAN Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5),chain B Human 115 26457 44 5.31 Protein metabolism
N2 TRP_HUMAN S33124 Tpr protein Human 101 238770 10 5.05 Signal transduction
N3 IRBP_HUMAN AAC18875 Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein Human 107 135603 27 4.79 Retinoid metabolism
N4 Q14697 Q14697 Glucosidase II Precursor Human 101 107289 16 5.71 Glucose metabolism
N5 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 83 68316 15 5.71 Motor protein
N6 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 94 68316 24 5.57 Motor protein
N7 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 103 68316 22 5.57 Motor protein
N8 TERA_HUMAN T02243 Probable transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase Human 149 89950 31 5.14 Transport
N9 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 148 80443 38 8.89 Energy metabolism
N10 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 122 80443 27 5.89 Energy metabolism
N11 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 106 80443 33 5.89 Energy metabolism
N12 HS7C_CRIGR HS7C_CRIGR Heat shock cognate 71 KD protein Cricetelus griseus 109 70989 45 5.24 Chaperone
N13 HS7C_HUMAN HS7C_HUMAN Hsc70; Hsp73: dnaK-type molecular chaperone Human 233 71082 40 5.37 Chaperone
N14 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 197 76037 38 5.42 Unclassified
N15 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 121 76037 28 5.42 Unclassified
N16 GR75_CRIGR AAB62091 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Cricetelus griseus 196 73970 47 5.87 Chaperone
N17 GR75_HUMAN B48127 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Human 111 73920 30 5.87 Chaperone
N18 GR75_HUMAN B48127 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Human 148 73920 35 5.87 Chaperone
N19 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 324 76037 57 5.42 Unclassified
N20 ALBU_HUMAN CAA01217 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Human 288 68425 50 5.67 Unclassified
N21 ALBU_HUMAN CAA01217 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Human 328 68425 62 5.67 Unclassified
N22 Q16518 Q16518 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Human 94 61650 23 6.04 Retinoid metabolism
N23 Q16518 Q16518 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Human 151 61650 28 6.02 Retinoid metabolism
N24 PDA3_HUMAN S55507 Protein disulfide-isomerase(EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 151 57043 43 6.1 Protein metabolism
N25 PDA3_HUMAN JC5704 Protein disulfide-isomerase(EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 106 57012 23 5.93 Protein metabolism
N26 PCLl_HUMAN AAF16937 Homo sapiens prenylcysteine lyase (PCLl) Human 94 57012 41 5.81 Protein metabolism
N27 ARRS_HUMAN AAC50992 Human arrestin (SAG) Human 164 45234 49 6.14 Visual transduction cascade
N28 ARRS_HUMAN AAC50992 Human arrestin (SAG) Human 201 45234 49 6.14 Visual transduction cascade
N29 ALFC_HUMAN ALFC_HUMAN Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) (Brain-type aldolase) Human 142 39699 40 6.42 Glucose metabolism
N30 ALFC_HUMAN ALFC_HUMAN Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) (Brain-type aldolase) Human 144 39699 39 6.42 Glucose metabolism
N31 ATPB_RAT IMABB F1-ATPase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Rat 152 49043 41 5.11 Energy metabolism
N32 ENOG_HUMAN NOHUG Phosphopyruvate hydratase(EC 4.2.1.11) gamma; gamma enolase; neuronale enolase Human 121 47581 32 4.91 Glucose metabolism
N33 ARRC_HUMAN ARRC_HUMAN Cone arrestin Human 104 43193 31 5.53 Visual transduction cascade
N34 Q05661 Q05661 Retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor P63 Bovine 108 61616 33 6.0 Retinoid metabolism
(continues)
Table 1A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Table 1A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
N35 ATPB_RAT IMABB F1-atpase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Rat 133 49043 45 5.11 Energy metabolism
N36 ARRC_HUMAN ARRC_HUMAN Cone arrestin Human 94 43193 38 5.53 Visual transduction cascade
N37 UCR1_HUMAN UCR1_HUMAN Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase (EC 1.10.2.2) core protein I Human 113 53279 39 5.94 Energy metabolism
N38 CAHU1_HUMAN CRHU1 Carbonate dehydrase(EC 4.2.1.1)I Human 117 28909 41 6.59 Unclassified
N39 PMG1_HUMAN PMG1_HUMAN Phosphoglycerate mutase(EC 5.4.2.1) B chain Rat 78 28928 56 6.67 Glucose metabolism
N40 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 122 26807 54 6.51 Glucose metabolism
N41 PMG1_HUMAN PMHUYB Phosphoglycerate mutase(EC 5.4.2.1) B Human 51 28900 22 6.67 Glucose metabolism
N42 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 91 26807 46 6.51 Glucose metabolism
N43 AOP2_HUMAN AOP2_HUMAN Antioxidant protein 2(1-Cys peroxiredoxin) Human 131 25002 51 6.02 Antioxidant protein
N44 Q99497 JC5394 DJ-1 protein Human 73 20063 43 6.33 Signal transduction
N45 GTP_HUMAN CAA30894 Gluthatione S-transferase:(pi-family) Human 133 23595 63 5.43 Antioxidant protein
N46 PDX2_HUMAN PDX2_HUMAN Peroxiredoxin 2 (thioredoxin peroxidase 1) Human 99 22049 37 5.66 Antioxidant protein
N47 APA1_HUMAN CAA00975 Apolipoprotein A1 precursor Human 112 28061 39 5.27 Unclassified
N48 ATPQ_HUMAN 075947 ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial (EC 3.6.1.34) Human 119 18405 60 5.22 Energy metabolism
N49 RECO_HUMAN RECO_HUMAN Recoverin (cancer associated retinopathy protein)(CAR protein) Human 155 23099 47 5.06 Visual transduction cascade
N50 NDKA_HUMAN NDKA_HUMAN Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (EC 2.7.4.6) Human 93 17309 47 5.88 Unclassified
N51 RETI_HUMAN P09455 Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) Human 110 14382 61 4.74 Retinoid metabolism
N52 143E_HUMAN S31975 14-3-3 protein epsilon, renal Mouse 125 29326 44 4.63 Signal transduction
N53 K2C8_HUMAN K2C8_HUMAN Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8 (cytokeratin 8) Human 144 53510 33 5.52 Intermediate filament
N54 SCB1_HUMAN Q9NVP7 Succinyl-CoA ligase(ADP-forming) beta-chain, mitochondrial Human 121 48338 27 6.63 Tricarboxylic acid cycle
N55 Q9P129 Q9P129 Calcium-binding transporter Human 98 46075 29 5.31 Unclassified
N56 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP_binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 91 38020 25 5.6 Signal transduction
N57 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 83 38020 25 5.6 Signal transduction
N58 CRAL_HUMAN CRAL_HUMAN Cellular retinaldehye-binding protein (CRALBP) Human 142 36679 51 4.98 Retinoid metabolism
N59 ANX5_HUMAN ANX5_HUMAN Annexin V Human 225 35840 62 4.94 Unclassified
N60 PHOS_HUMAN A35422 Phosducin, retinal Human 88 28513 27 5.08 Signal transduction
N61 CRAL_HUMAN CRAL_HUMAN Cellular retinaldehye-binding protein (CRALBP) Human 122 36548 44 4.98 Retinoid metabolism
N62 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D, chain B Human 149 26457 65 7.5 Protein metabolism
N63 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D, chain B Human 155 26457 65 7.5 Protein metabolism
N64 KPY1_HUMAN KPY1_HUMAN Pyruvate kinase, M1 isozyme(EC 2.7.1.40) Human 158 58280 31 7.57 Glucose metabolism
N65 ATPA_HUMAN PWHUA H+-transporting two-sector ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) alpha chain precursor Human 171 59828 34 9.16 Energy metabolism
N66 TBBX_HUMAN Q8WUC Tubulin beta 5 Human 117 50096 25 4.75 Cytoskeleton
N67 TBA1_HUMAN 177403 Tubulin alpha 1 chain Human 103 50804 33 4.94 Cytoskeleton
N68 PGK1_HUMAN KIHUG Phosphoglycerate kinase(EC 2.7.2.3) Human 129 44985 37 8.3 Glucose metabolism
N69 LDHH_HUMAN LDHH_HUMAN L-Lactate dehydrogenase H chain (EC 1.1.1.27), LDH-B Human 74 36769 19 5.72 Glucose metabolism
N70 MDHC_HUMAN MDHC_HUMAN Malate dehydrogenase(EC 1.1.1.37) Human 84 36500 27 6.89 Unclassified
N71 G3P2_HUMAN G3P2_HUMAN Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) Human 121 36070 40 8.58 Glucose metabolism
Table 2.
 
Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2.
 
Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. SwissProt Entry Name Accession No. Protein Name Organism MOWSE Score Mr (dalton) Sequ. Cov. (%) pI Functional Category
C1 CLHI_HUMAN CLHI_HUMAN Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLH-17) Human 99 193260 21 5.48 Transport
C2 OXRP_HUMAN OXRP_HUMAN Oxygen-regulated protein 150K precursor Human 92 111494 21 5.16 Chaperone
C3 AAC1_HUMAN AAC1_HUMAN Alpha-actinin 1, cytoskeletal isoform Human 127 103480 27 5.22 Cytoskeleton
C4 Q14697 HSGLUCOII Glucosidase II Human 169 107289 25 5.71 Glucose metabolism
C5 GELS_HUMAN GELS_HUMAN Gelsolin precursor, plasma Human 90 86043 17 5.9 Cytoskeleton
C6 KU86_HUMAN KU86_HUMAN ATP-dependent DNA helicase II, 86 kDa subunit Human 80 83091 15 5.55 DNA-binding
C7 GR75_CRIGR GR75_CRIGR Mitochondrial stress-70 protein precursor(75 kDa glucose regulated) Cricetelus griseus 204 73970 42 5.87 Chaperone
C8 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI (lipocortin VI) Human 243 76168 37 5.42 Unclassified
C9 HS71_HUMAN A45871 DnaK-type molecular chaperone HSP70-1 Human 171 70294 28 5.48 Chaperone
C10 HS71_HUMAN A45871 DnaK-type molecular chaperone Human 152 70294 26 5.48 Chaperone
C11 O54776 AB005132 LIM motif-containing protein kinase(EC 2.7.1.-)2 Mouse 82 71305 13 7.21 Signal transduction
C12 HS7C_HUMAN A27077 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein Human 153 71082 28 5.37 Chaperone
C13 HS7C_HUMAN A27077 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein Human 159 71082 30 5.37 Chaperone
C14 HS9A_HUMAN HS9A_HUMAN Heat shock proteinHSP 90-alpha(HSP 86) Human 125 84889 29 4.94 Chaperone
C15 HS9B_HUMAN HS9B_HUMAN Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta Human 64 83554 13 4.97 Chaperone
C16 Q96112 Q96112 Proteasome (macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase Human 108 100926 19 5.08 Protein metabolism
C17 UBC1_HUMAN A38564 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (EC 6.3.2.19) Human 90 118858 16 5.49 Protein metabolism
C18 Q14697 Q14697 Glucosidase II Precursor (KIAA0088 protein) Human 144 107289 18 5.71 Glucose metabolism
C19 VINC_HUMAN VINC_HUMAN Vinculin (metavinculin) Human 87 117088 18 5.83 Cell Adhesion
C20 Q96CU8 Q96CU8 Similar to villin 2 (ezrin) Human 83 69484 14 5.94 Membrane-organization
C21 035763 AAB61666 Moesin Rat 92 67868 17 6.16 Membrane-organization
C22 EF2_HUMAN EF2_HUMAN Elongation factor 2(EF-2) Human 102 96115 19 6.42 Protein metabolism
C23 PDA3_HUMAN JC5704 Protein disulfide-isomerase (EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 161 57043 35 5.98 Protein metabolism
C24 K2C8_HUMAN K2C8_HUMAN Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8 (cytokeratin 8) Human 266 53520 47 5.42 Intermediate filament
C25 K2C7_HUMAN Q9BUD8 Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 7 (cytokeratin 7) Human 209 51444 40 5.42 Intermediate filament
C26 TKT_HUMAN A45050 Transketolase(EC 2.2.1.1) Human 85 68435 24 7.9 Glucose metabolism
C27 KPY1_HUMAN KPY1_HUMAN Pyruvate kinase, M1 isozyme(EC 2.7.1.40) Human 112 58280 29 7.57 Glucose metabolism
C28 ANXB_HUMAN P50995 Annexin XI (56 kD autoantigen) Human 90 54697 21 7.53 Unclassified
C29 ENOA_HUMAN ENOA_HUMAN Alpha enolase(EC 4.2.1.11) (non-neuronal enolase) Human 175 47481 43 6.99 Glucose metabolism
(continues)
Table 2A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
C30 ENOA_HUMAN ENOA_HUMAN Alpha enolase(EC 4.2.1.11); Non-neuronal enolase Human 198 47350 56 6.99 Glucose metabolism
C31 IF41_HUMAN CAA26843 Translation intiation factor eIF-4AI Mouse 90 42386 29 6.56 Protein metabolism
C32 KICR_HUMAN CAA31377 Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 Human 184 47305 36 5.27 Intermediate filament
C33 KICR_HUMAN CAA31377 Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 Human 161 47305 37 5.27 Intermediate filament
C34 PGK1_HUMAN KIHUG Phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) Human 101 44985 24 8.3 Glucose metabolism
C35 G3P2_HUMAN G3P2_HUMAN Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase(EC 1.2.1.12) Human 98 36070 29 8.58 Glucose metabolism
C36 K1C2_HUMAN KRHU Keratin, type I, cytoskeletal 19 Human 94 44064 23 5.04 Intermediate filament
C37 ROA2_HUMAN ROA2_HUMAN Heterogeneous ribonuclear particle protein B1 Human 101 36041 38 8.67 RNA synthesis/degradation
C38 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 86 38151 24 5.71 Signal transduction
C39 GBB2_HUMAN RGHUB2 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-2 chain Human 83 38048 31 5.6 Signal transduction
C40 LDHH_HUMAN DEHULH L-Lactate dehydrogenase H chain (LDH-B)(EC 1.1.1.27) Human 87 36769 39 5.72 Glucose metabolism
C41 Q92XN6 AAK54243 Tropomyosin alpha isoform Rat 104 33064 33 4.77 Cytoskeleton organization
C42 TPM4_HUMAN CAA2888 Tropomyosin 4 type 2 Human 141 28522 40 4.77 Cytoskeleton organization
C43 TPM3_HUMAN A25530 Tropomyosin alpha 3 chain Human 189 29243 39 4.75 Cytoskeleton organization
C44 ANX5_HUMAN ANX5_HUMAN Annexin V Human 171 35840 43 4.94 Unclassified
C45 143E_HUMAN AAC37321 14-3-3 protein epsilon isoform Ovis aries 129 26450 54 4.8 Signal transduction
C46 143Z_HUMAN S65013 14-3-3 protein zeta chain Cow 153 27810 60 4.73 Signal transduction
C47 ANX1_HUMAN ANX1_HUMAN Annexin I Human 88 38787 28 6.64 Unclassified
C48 ANX2_HUMAN ANX2_HUMAN Annexin II Human 189 38677 46 7.56 Unclassified
C49 GTP_HUMAN CAA30894 Glutatione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) Human 81 23595 45 5.43 Antioxidant protein
C50 PDX2_HUMAN CAA80269 Peroxiredoxin 2 (thioredoxin peroxidase 1) Human 94 22104 28 6.84 Antioxidant protein
C51 HS27_HUMAN E980237 HSP 27 Human 97 22427 38 7.83 Chaperone
C52 AOP2_HUMAN AOP2_HUMAN Antioxidant protein 2 (EC 1.11.1.7) Human 87 25002 35 6.02 Antioxidant protein
C53 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 64 26807 26 6.51 Glucose metabolism
C54 PMGI_HUMAN PMHUYB Phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1) B Human 94 28900 50 6.67 Glucose metabolism
C55 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 116 26807 53 6.51 Glucose metabolism
C56 CYPH_HUMAN CYPH_HUMAN Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A(EC 5.2.1.8) Human 93 18098 45 7.82 Protein metabolism
C57 AAC4_HUMAN BAA24447 Alpha actinin 4 Human 271 102661 48 5.27 Cytoskeleton organization
C58 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D(EC 3.4.23.5), chain B Human 74 26457 31 5.31 Protein metabolism
C59 IF5A_HUMAN IF5A_HUMAN Initiation factor 5A(EIF-5A)(EIF-4D) Human 75 16918 53 5.08 Protein metabolism
C60 Q14019 Q14019 CLP (fragment); Syn: Coactosin Human 111 16049 54 5.54 Cytoskeleton organization
(continues)
Table 2B.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2B.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
C61 LEG1_HUMAN LEG1_HUMAN Galectin-1 (beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-1) Human 88 14917 52 5.34 Unclassified
C62 THIO_HUMAN JH568 Thioredoxin Human 89 12015 59 4.82 Antioxidant
Table 3.
 
Proteins Downregulated or Absent in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 3.
 
Proteins Downregulated or Absent in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. Protein Name Function
N1, 62, 63 Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5), chain B-human Acid protease involved in intracellular protein breakdown
N2 Tpr protein Involved in activation of oncogenic kinases
N3 Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein Shuttles retinoids between the retinol isomerase in the RPE and the visual pigments in the retina
N5-7 Mitofilin Mitochandrial motor protein
N9-11 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Electron transfer/respiratory chain
N20, 21 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Serum component
N22, 23 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Involved in retinoid processing, presumed RPE membrane receptor for retinoids and component of isomerase system
N26 Homo sapiens prenylcysteine lyase (PCL1) Involved in degradation of prenylated proteins
N27, 28 Human arrestin (SAG) Binds photoactivated-phosphorylated rhodopsin, thereby arresting visual signal transduction
N29, 30 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) Glycolysis; brain-type aldolase
N32 Phosphopyruvate hydratase (EC 4.2.1.11) gamma; neuronale enolase Glycolysis; neuronal tissue-associated isoform
N33, 36 Cone arrestin Presumably binds to photoactivated-phosphorylated red/green opsins
N34 Retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor P63 Involved in retinoid processing, presumed RPE membrane receptor for retinoids
N35 F1-Atpase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Respiratory chain
N37 Ubiquinolcytochrome-c reductase (EC 1.10.2.2) core protein 1 Electron transfer/respiratory chain
N47 Apolipoprotein A1 precursor Participates in reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver
N49 Recoverin (cancer associated retinopathy protein) (CAR protein) Neuronal Ca2+-sensor protein: inhibition of the phosphorylation of rhodopsin in a Ca2+-dependent manner; thought to prolong the light state
N51 Cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP) Intracellular transport of retinol
N54 Succinyl-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) beta-chain Involved in the tricarboxylic cycle: substrate level phosphorylation step
N55 Calcium-binding transporter, retinal Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial solute carrier
N58, 61 Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP). Retinoid metabolism: binds 11-cis retinal, involved in isomerization process
N60 Phosducin, retinal GTP-binding protein: modulates phototransduction cascade by interacting with transducin
Table 4.
 
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 4.
 
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. Protein Name Function
C1 Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLH-17) Major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles
C2 Oxygen-regulated protein 150K precursor Chaperone activity and cytoprotective role in cellular mechanisms triggered by oxygen deprivation
C3 Alpha-actinin 1, cytoskeletal isoform Bundling protein: anchors actin to intracellular structures
C5 Gelsolin precursor Actin-modulating protein: promotes assembly of actin monomers into filaments
C6 ATP-dependent DNA helicase II, 86 kDa subunit Chromosome translocation, binds double-stranded DNA
C17 Ubiquitin protein ligase (EC 6.3.2.19) Ubiquitination
C19 Vinculin (metavinculin) Cell adhesion, involved in attachment of actin-based microfilaments to plasma membrane
C25 Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 7 (cytokeratin 7) Intermediate filament protein
C31 Translation intiation factor eIF-4AI Initiation phase of protein synthesis
C36 Keratin, type I, cytoskeletal 19 Intermediate filament protein
C41 Tropomyosin alpha isoform Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C42 Tropomyosin 4 Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C43 Tropomyosin alpha 3 chain Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C47 Annexin I Membrane organization, exocytosis, control of cell growth
C48 Annexin II Membrane organization, exocytosis, control of cell growth
C57 Alpha actinin 4 Actin binding protein; anchors actin to intracellular structures; colocalizes with actin stress fibers
C58 Initiation factor 5A (EIF-5A) (EIF-4D) Initiation phase of protein synthesis
C60 CLP (fragment); Syn: Coactosin Actin-binding protein, colocalizes with actin stress fibers
C61 Galectin-1 (beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-I) Involved in regulation of cell differentiation, adhesion
C62 Thioredoxin Participates in various redox reactions
The authors thank Katja Obholzer for excellent technical assistance and Ursula Olazabal for a critical reading of the manuscript. 
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Figure 1.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of differentiated native human RPE cells. Differentiated native human RPE cells were freshly isolated from human donor eyes and processed as described in Materials and Methods. Approximately 125 μg of protein was separated on an 18-cm, pH 3 to 10 nonlinear IPG strip, followed by 9% to 15% SDS-PAGE. The images are virtual average images calculated from three real gel images. Numbered spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and are listed in Table 1 1 .
Figure 1.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of differentiated native human RPE cells. Differentiated native human RPE cells were freshly isolated from human donor eyes and processed as described in Materials and Methods. Approximately 125 μg of protein was separated on an 18-cm, pH 3 to 10 nonlinear IPG strip, followed by 9% to 15% SDS-PAGE. The images are virtual average images calculated from three real gel images. Numbered spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and are listed in Table 1 1 .
Figure 2.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells of passage 3. RPE cells were grown on tissue culture plastic plates until they reached 80% to 90% confluence. Cells were then depleted of serum for 48 hours and harvested. Processing was as in Figure 1 . Numbered spots are identified in Table 2 2 2 .
Figure 2.
 
Silver-stained 2-DE image of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells of passage 3. RPE cells were grown on tissue culture plastic plates until they reached 80% to 90% confluence. Cells were then depleted of serum for 48 hours and harvested. Processing was as in Figure 1 . Numbered spots are identified in Table 2 2 2 .
Table 1.
 
Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Table 1.
 
Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Spot No. SwissProt Entry Name Accession No. Protein Name Organism MOWSE Score Mr (dalton) Sequ. Cov. (%) pI Functional Category
N1 CATD_HUMAN CATD_HUMAN Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5),chain B Human 115 26457 44 5.31 Protein metabolism
N2 TRP_HUMAN S33124 Tpr protein Human 101 238770 10 5.05 Signal transduction
N3 IRBP_HUMAN AAC18875 Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein Human 107 135603 27 4.79 Retinoid metabolism
N4 Q14697 Q14697 Glucosidase II Precursor Human 101 107289 16 5.71 Glucose metabolism
N5 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 83 68316 15 5.71 Motor protein
N6 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 94 68316 24 5.57 Motor protein
N7 Q9P0V2 Q9P0V2 Mitofilin Human 103 68316 22 5.57 Motor protein
N8 TERA_HUMAN T02243 Probable transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase Human 149 89950 31 5.14 Transport
N9 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 148 80443 38 8.89 Energy metabolism
N10 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 122 80443 27 5.89 Energy metabolism
N11 NUAM_HUMAN AAH22368 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Human 106 80443 33 5.89 Energy metabolism
N12 HS7C_CRIGR HS7C_CRIGR Heat shock cognate 71 KD protein Cricetelus griseus 109 70989 45 5.24 Chaperone
N13 HS7C_HUMAN HS7C_HUMAN Hsc70; Hsp73: dnaK-type molecular chaperone Human 233 71082 40 5.37 Chaperone
N14 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 197 76037 38 5.42 Unclassified
N15 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 121 76037 28 5.42 Unclassified
N16 GR75_CRIGR AAB62091 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Cricetelus griseus 196 73970 47 5.87 Chaperone
N17 GR75_HUMAN B48127 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Human 111 73920 30 5.87 Chaperone
N18 GR75_HUMAN B48127 70kDa heat shock protein precursor, (75kDA glucose regulated protein) Human 148 73920 35 5.87 Chaperone
N19 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI Human 324 76037 57 5.42 Unclassified
N20 ALBU_HUMAN CAA01217 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Human 288 68425 50 5.67 Unclassified
N21 ALBU_HUMAN CAA01217 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Human 328 68425 62 5.67 Unclassified
N22 Q16518 Q16518 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Human 94 61650 23 6.04 Retinoid metabolism
N23 Q16518 Q16518 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Human 151 61650 28 6.02 Retinoid metabolism
N24 PDA3_HUMAN S55507 Protein disulfide-isomerase(EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 151 57043 43 6.1 Protein metabolism
N25 PDA3_HUMAN JC5704 Protein disulfide-isomerase(EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 106 57012 23 5.93 Protein metabolism
N26 PCLl_HUMAN AAF16937 Homo sapiens prenylcysteine lyase (PCLl) Human 94 57012 41 5.81 Protein metabolism
N27 ARRS_HUMAN AAC50992 Human arrestin (SAG) Human 164 45234 49 6.14 Visual transduction cascade
N28 ARRS_HUMAN AAC50992 Human arrestin (SAG) Human 201 45234 49 6.14 Visual transduction cascade
N29 ALFC_HUMAN ALFC_HUMAN Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) (Brain-type aldolase) Human 142 39699 40 6.42 Glucose metabolism
N30 ALFC_HUMAN ALFC_HUMAN Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) (Brain-type aldolase) Human 144 39699 39 6.42 Glucose metabolism
N31 ATPB_RAT IMABB F1-ATPase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Rat 152 49043 41 5.11 Energy metabolism
N32 ENOG_HUMAN NOHUG Phosphopyruvate hydratase(EC 4.2.1.11) gamma; gamma enolase; neuronale enolase Human 121 47581 32 4.91 Glucose metabolism
N33 ARRC_HUMAN ARRC_HUMAN Cone arrestin Human 104 43193 31 5.53 Visual transduction cascade
N34 Q05661 Q05661 Retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor P63 Bovine 108 61616 33 6.0 Retinoid metabolism
(continues)
Table 1A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
Table 1A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Differentiated Native Human RPE Cells
N35 ATPB_RAT IMABB F1-atpase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Rat 133 49043 45 5.11 Energy metabolism
N36 ARRC_HUMAN ARRC_HUMAN Cone arrestin Human 94 43193 38 5.53 Visual transduction cascade
N37 UCR1_HUMAN UCR1_HUMAN Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase (EC 1.10.2.2) core protein I Human 113 53279 39 5.94 Energy metabolism
N38 CAHU1_HUMAN CRHU1 Carbonate dehydrase(EC 4.2.1.1)I Human 117 28909 41 6.59 Unclassified
N39 PMG1_HUMAN PMG1_HUMAN Phosphoglycerate mutase(EC 5.4.2.1) B chain Rat 78 28928 56 6.67 Glucose metabolism
N40 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 122 26807 54 6.51 Glucose metabolism
N41 PMG1_HUMAN PMHUYB Phosphoglycerate mutase(EC 5.4.2.1) B Human 51 28900 22 6.67 Glucose metabolism
N42 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 91 26807 46 6.51 Glucose metabolism
N43 AOP2_HUMAN AOP2_HUMAN Antioxidant protein 2(1-Cys peroxiredoxin) Human 131 25002 51 6.02 Antioxidant protein
N44 Q99497 JC5394 DJ-1 protein Human 73 20063 43 6.33 Signal transduction
N45 GTP_HUMAN CAA30894 Gluthatione S-transferase:(pi-family) Human 133 23595 63 5.43 Antioxidant protein
N46 PDX2_HUMAN PDX2_HUMAN Peroxiredoxin 2 (thioredoxin peroxidase 1) Human 99 22049 37 5.66 Antioxidant protein
N47 APA1_HUMAN CAA00975 Apolipoprotein A1 precursor Human 112 28061 39 5.27 Unclassified
N48 ATPQ_HUMAN 075947 ATP synthase D chain, mitochondrial (EC 3.6.1.34) Human 119 18405 60 5.22 Energy metabolism
N49 RECO_HUMAN RECO_HUMAN Recoverin (cancer associated retinopathy protein)(CAR protein) Human 155 23099 47 5.06 Visual transduction cascade
N50 NDKA_HUMAN NDKA_HUMAN Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (EC 2.7.4.6) Human 93 17309 47 5.88 Unclassified
N51 RETI_HUMAN P09455 Cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) Human 110 14382 61 4.74 Retinoid metabolism
N52 143E_HUMAN S31975 14-3-3 protein epsilon, renal Mouse 125 29326 44 4.63 Signal transduction
N53 K2C8_HUMAN K2C8_HUMAN Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8 (cytokeratin 8) Human 144 53510 33 5.52 Intermediate filament
N54 SCB1_HUMAN Q9NVP7 Succinyl-CoA ligase(ADP-forming) beta-chain, mitochondrial Human 121 48338 27 6.63 Tricarboxylic acid cycle
N55 Q9P129 Q9P129 Calcium-binding transporter Human 98 46075 29 5.31 Unclassified
N56 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP_binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 91 38020 25 5.6 Signal transduction
N57 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 83 38020 25 5.6 Signal transduction
N58 CRAL_HUMAN CRAL_HUMAN Cellular retinaldehye-binding protein (CRALBP) Human 142 36679 51 4.98 Retinoid metabolism
N59 ANX5_HUMAN ANX5_HUMAN Annexin V Human 225 35840 62 4.94 Unclassified
N60 PHOS_HUMAN A35422 Phosducin, retinal Human 88 28513 27 5.08 Signal transduction
N61 CRAL_HUMAN CRAL_HUMAN Cellular retinaldehye-binding protein (CRALBP) Human 122 36548 44 4.98 Retinoid metabolism
N62 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D, chain B Human 149 26457 65 7.5 Protein metabolism
N63 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D, chain B Human 155 26457 65 7.5 Protein metabolism
N64 KPY1_HUMAN KPY1_HUMAN Pyruvate kinase, M1 isozyme(EC 2.7.1.40) Human 158 58280 31 7.57 Glucose metabolism
N65 ATPA_HUMAN PWHUA H+-transporting two-sector ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) alpha chain precursor Human 171 59828 34 9.16 Energy metabolism
N66 TBBX_HUMAN Q8WUC Tubulin beta 5 Human 117 50096 25 4.75 Cytoskeleton
N67 TBA1_HUMAN 177403 Tubulin alpha 1 chain Human 103 50804 33 4.94 Cytoskeleton
N68 PGK1_HUMAN KIHUG Phosphoglycerate kinase(EC 2.7.2.3) Human 129 44985 37 8.3 Glucose metabolism
N69 LDHH_HUMAN LDHH_HUMAN L-Lactate dehydrogenase H chain (EC 1.1.1.27), LDH-B Human 74 36769 19 5.72 Glucose metabolism
N70 MDHC_HUMAN MDHC_HUMAN Malate dehydrogenase(EC 1.1.1.37) Human 84 36500 27 6.89 Unclassified
N71 G3P2_HUMAN G3P2_HUMAN Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.12) Human 121 36070 40 8.58 Glucose metabolism
Table 2.
 
Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2.
 
Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. SwissProt Entry Name Accession No. Protein Name Organism MOWSE Score Mr (dalton) Sequ. Cov. (%) pI Functional Category
C1 CLHI_HUMAN CLHI_HUMAN Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLH-17) Human 99 193260 21 5.48 Transport
C2 OXRP_HUMAN OXRP_HUMAN Oxygen-regulated protein 150K precursor Human 92 111494 21 5.16 Chaperone
C3 AAC1_HUMAN AAC1_HUMAN Alpha-actinin 1, cytoskeletal isoform Human 127 103480 27 5.22 Cytoskeleton
C4 Q14697 HSGLUCOII Glucosidase II Human 169 107289 25 5.71 Glucose metabolism
C5 GELS_HUMAN GELS_HUMAN Gelsolin precursor, plasma Human 90 86043 17 5.9 Cytoskeleton
C6 KU86_HUMAN KU86_HUMAN ATP-dependent DNA helicase II, 86 kDa subunit Human 80 83091 15 5.55 DNA-binding
C7 GR75_CRIGR GR75_CRIGR Mitochondrial stress-70 protein precursor(75 kDa glucose regulated) Cricetelus griseus 204 73970 42 5.87 Chaperone
C8 ANX6_HUMAN ANX6_HUMAN Annexin VI (lipocortin VI) Human 243 76168 37 5.42 Unclassified
C9 HS71_HUMAN A45871 DnaK-type molecular chaperone HSP70-1 Human 171 70294 28 5.48 Chaperone
C10 HS71_HUMAN A45871 DnaK-type molecular chaperone Human 152 70294 26 5.48 Chaperone
C11 O54776 AB005132 LIM motif-containing protein kinase(EC 2.7.1.-)2 Mouse 82 71305 13 7.21 Signal transduction
C12 HS7C_HUMAN A27077 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein Human 153 71082 28 5.37 Chaperone
C13 HS7C_HUMAN A27077 Heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein Human 159 71082 30 5.37 Chaperone
C14 HS9A_HUMAN HS9A_HUMAN Heat shock proteinHSP 90-alpha(HSP 86) Human 125 84889 29 4.94 Chaperone
C15 HS9B_HUMAN HS9B_HUMAN Heat shock protein HSP 90-beta Human 64 83554 13 4.97 Chaperone
C16 Q96112 Q96112 Proteasome (macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase Human 108 100926 19 5.08 Protein metabolism
C17 UBC1_HUMAN A38564 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (EC 6.3.2.19) Human 90 118858 16 5.49 Protein metabolism
C18 Q14697 Q14697 Glucosidase II Precursor (KIAA0088 protein) Human 144 107289 18 5.71 Glucose metabolism
C19 VINC_HUMAN VINC_HUMAN Vinculin (metavinculin) Human 87 117088 18 5.83 Cell Adhesion
C20 Q96CU8 Q96CU8 Similar to villin 2 (ezrin) Human 83 69484 14 5.94 Membrane-organization
C21 035763 AAB61666 Moesin Rat 92 67868 17 6.16 Membrane-organization
C22 EF2_HUMAN EF2_HUMAN Elongation factor 2(EF-2) Human 102 96115 19 6.42 Protein metabolism
C23 PDA3_HUMAN JC5704 Protein disulfide-isomerase (EC 5.3.4.1) precursor Human 161 57043 35 5.98 Protein metabolism
C24 K2C8_HUMAN K2C8_HUMAN Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8 (cytokeratin 8) Human 266 53520 47 5.42 Intermediate filament
C25 K2C7_HUMAN Q9BUD8 Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 7 (cytokeratin 7) Human 209 51444 40 5.42 Intermediate filament
C26 TKT_HUMAN A45050 Transketolase(EC 2.2.1.1) Human 85 68435 24 7.9 Glucose metabolism
C27 KPY1_HUMAN KPY1_HUMAN Pyruvate kinase, M1 isozyme(EC 2.7.1.40) Human 112 58280 29 7.57 Glucose metabolism
C28 ANXB_HUMAN P50995 Annexin XI (56 kD autoantigen) Human 90 54697 21 7.53 Unclassified
C29 ENOA_HUMAN ENOA_HUMAN Alpha enolase(EC 4.2.1.11) (non-neuronal enolase) Human 175 47481 43 6.99 Glucose metabolism
(continues)
Table 2A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2A.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
C30 ENOA_HUMAN ENOA_HUMAN Alpha enolase(EC 4.2.1.11); Non-neuronal enolase Human 198 47350 56 6.99 Glucose metabolism
C31 IF41_HUMAN CAA26843 Translation intiation factor eIF-4AI Mouse 90 42386 29 6.56 Protein metabolism
C32 KICR_HUMAN CAA31377 Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 Human 184 47305 36 5.27 Intermediate filament
C33 KICR_HUMAN CAA31377 Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 Human 161 47305 37 5.27 Intermediate filament
C34 PGK1_HUMAN KIHUG Phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) Human 101 44985 24 8.3 Glucose metabolism
C35 G3P2_HUMAN G3P2_HUMAN Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase(EC 1.2.1.12) Human 98 36070 29 8.58 Glucose metabolism
C36 K1C2_HUMAN KRHU Keratin, type I, cytoskeletal 19 Human 94 44064 23 5.04 Intermediate filament
C37 ROA2_HUMAN ROA2_HUMAN Heterogeneous ribonuclear particle protein B1 Human 101 36041 38 8.67 RNA synthesis/degradation
C38 GBB1_HUMAN RGHUB1 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-1 chain Human 86 38151 24 5.71 Signal transduction
C39 GBB2_HUMAN RGHUB2 GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-2 chain Human 83 38048 31 5.6 Signal transduction
C40 LDHH_HUMAN DEHULH L-Lactate dehydrogenase H chain (LDH-B)(EC 1.1.1.27) Human 87 36769 39 5.72 Glucose metabolism
C41 Q92XN6 AAK54243 Tropomyosin alpha isoform Rat 104 33064 33 4.77 Cytoskeleton organization
C42 TPM4_HUMAN CAA2888 Tropomyosin 4 type 2 Human 141 28522 40 4.77 Cytoskeleton organization
C43 TPM3_HUMAN A25530 Tropomyosin alpha 3 chain Human 189 29243 39 4.75 Cytoskeleton organization
C44 ANX5_HUMAN ANX5_HUMAN Annexin V Human 171 35840 43 4.94 Unclassified
C45 143E_HUMAN AAC37321 14-3-3 protein epsilon isoform Ovis aries 129 26450 54 4.8 Signal transduction
C46 143Z_HUMAN S65013 14-3-3 protein zeta chain Cow 153 27810 60 4.73 Signal transduction
C47 ANX1_HUMAN ANX1_HUMAN Annexin I Human 88 38787 28 6.64 Unclassified
C48 ANX2_HUMAN ANX2_HUMAN Annexin II Human 189 38677 46 7.56 Unclassified
C49 GTP_HUMAN CAA30894 Glutatione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) Human 81 23595 45 5.43 Antioxidant protein
C50 PDX2_HUMAN CAA80269 Peroxiredoxin 2 (thioredoxin peroxidase 1) Human 94 22104 28 6.84 Antioxidant protein
C51 HS27_HUMAN E980237 HSP 27 Human 97 22427 38 7.83 Chaperone
C52 AOP2_HUMAN AOP2_HUMAN Antioxidant protein 2 (EC 1.11.1.7) Human 87 25002 35 6.02 Antioxidant protein
C53 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 64 26807 26 6.51 Glucose metabolism
C54 PMGI_HUMAN PMHUYB Phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1) B Human 94 28900 50 6.67 Glucose metabolism
C55 TPIS_HUMAN TPIS_HUMAN Triosephosphate isomerase(EC 5.3.1.1) Human 116 26807 53 6.51 Glucose metabolism
C56 CYPH_HUMAN CYPH_HUMAN Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A(EC 5.2.1.8) Human 93 18098 45 7.82 Protein metabolism
C57 AAC4_HUMAN BAA24447 Alpha actinin 4 Human 271 102661 48 5.27 Cytoskeleton organization
C58 CATD_HUMAN ILYWB Cathepsin D(EC 3.4.23.5), chain B Human 74 26457 31 5.31 Protein metabolism
C59 IF5A_HUMAN IF5A_HUMAN Initiation factor 5A(EIF-5A)(EIF-4D) Human 75 16918 53 5.08 Protein metabolism
C60 Q14019 Q14019 CLP (fragment); Syn: Coactosin Human 111 16049 54 5.54 Cytoskeleton organization
(continues)
Table 2B.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 2B.
 
(continued). Proteins Identified in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
C61 LEG1_HUMAN LEG1_HUMAN Galectin-1 (beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-1) Human 88 14917 52 5.34 Unclassified
C62 THIO_HUMAN JH568 Thioredoxin Human 89 12015 59 4.82 Antioxidant
Table 3.
 
Proteins Downregulated or Absent in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 3.
 
Proteins Downregulated or Absent in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. Protein Name Function
N1, 62, 63 Cathepsin D (EC 3.4.23.5), chain B-human Acid protease involved in intracellular protein breakdown
N2 Tpr protein Involved in activation of oncogenic kinases
N3 Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein Shuttles retinoids between the retinol isomerase in the RPE and the visual pigments in the retina
N5-7 Mitofilin Mitochandrial motor protein
N9-11 NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit Electron transfer/respiratory chain
N20, 21 Mature human serum albumin (fragment) Serum component
N22, 23 Retinal pigment epithelium-specific 61 kDa protein Involved in retinoid processing, presumed RPE membrane receptor for retinoids and component of isomerase system
N26 Homo sapiens prenylcysteine lyase (PCL1) Involved in degradation of prenylated proteins
N27, 28 Human arrestin (SAG) Binds photoactivated-phosphorylated rhodopsin, thereby arresting visual signal transduction
N29, 30 Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C (EC 4.1.2.13) Glycolysis; brain-type aldolase
N32 Phosphopyruvate hydratase (EC 4.2.1.11) gamma; neuronale enolase Glycolysis; neuronal tissue-associated isoform
N33, 36 Cone arrestin Presumably binds to photoactivated-phosphorylated red/green opsins
N34 Retinal pigment epithelial membrane receptor P63 Involved in retinoid processing, presumed RPE membrane receptor for retinoids
N35 F1-Atpase beta chain beta chain (EC 3.6.1.34), chain B Respiratory chain
N37 Ubiquinolcytochrome-c reductase (EC 1.10.2.2) core protein 1 Electron transfer/respiratory chain
N47 Apolipoprotein A1 precursor Participates in reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver
N49 Recoverin (cancer associated retinopathy protein) (CAR protein) Neuronal Ca2+-sensor protein: inhibition of the phosphorylation of rhodopsin in a Ca2+-dependent manner; thought to prolong the light state
N51 Cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP) Intracellular transport of retinol
N54 Succinyl-CoA ligase (ADP-forming) beta-chain Involved in the tricarboxylic cycle: substrate level phosphorylation step
N55 Calcium-binding transporter, retinal Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial solute carrier
N58, 61 Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP). Retinoid metabolism: binds 11-cis retinal, involved in isomerization process
N60 Phosducin, retinal GTP-binding protein: modulates phototransduction cascade by interacting with transducin
Table 4.
 
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Table 4.
 
Proteins Upregulated in Dedifferentiated Cultured Human RPE Cells
Spot No. Protein Name Function
C1 Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLH-17) Major protein of the polyhedral coat of coated pits and vesicles
C2 Oxygen-regulated protein 150K precursor Chaperone activity and cytoprotective role in cellular mechanisms triggered by oxygen deprivation
C3 Alpha-actinin 1, cytoskeletal isoform Bundling protein: anchors actin to intracellular structures
C5 Gelsolin precursor Actin-modulating protein: promotes assembly of actin monomers into filaments
C6 ATP-dependent DNA helicase II, 86 kDa subunit Chromosome translocation, binds double-stranded DNA
C17 Ubiquitin protein ligase (EC 6.3.2.19) Ubiquitination
C19 Vinculin (metavinculin) Cell adhesion, involved in attachment of actin-based microfilaments to plasma membrane
C25 Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 7 (cytokeratin 7) Intermediate filament protein
C31 Translation intiation factor eIF-4AI Initiation phase of protein synthesis
C36 Keratin, type I, cytoskeletal 19 Intermediate filament protein
C41 Tropomyosin alpha isoform Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C42 Tropomyosin 4 Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C43 Tropomyosin alpha 3 chain Stress fiber component; in nonmuscle cells implicated in stabilizing cytoskeleton actin filaments
C47 Annexin I Membrane organization, exocytosis, control of cell growth
C48 Annexin II Membrane organization, exocytosis, control of cell growth
C57 Alpha actinin 4 Actin binding protein; anchors actin to intracellular structures; colocalizes with actin stress fibers
C58 Initiation factor 5A (EIF-5A) (EIF-4D) Initiation phase of protein synthesis
C60 CLP (fragment); Syn: Coactosin Actin-binding protein, colocalizes with actin stress fibers
C61 Galectin-1 (beta-galactoside-binding lectin L-14-I) Involved in regulation of cell differentiation, adhesion
C62 Thioredoxin Participates in various redox reactions
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