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Wei-Hong Xiong, R. Lane Brown, Brian Reed, Neal S. Burke, Robert M. Duvoisin, Catherine W. Morgans; Voriconazole, an Antifungal Triazol That Causes Visual Side Effects, Is an Inhibitor of TRPM1 and TRPM3 Channels. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(2):1367-1373. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-15270.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Administration of voriconazole, an antifungal triazole, causes transient visual disturbances in patients and attenuates the b-wave of the ERG. We sought to identify the retinal target of voriconazole underlying the effect on the ERG b-wave.
Electroretinograms were recorded from mice before and after intraperitoneal injection of voriconazole. The effect of voriconazole on ON-bipolar cells was tested by patch-clamp recordings of ON-bipolar cells in mouse retinal slices. Effects of voriconazole on mGluR6 and TRPM3 were assessed by patch-clamp recordings of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HEK293 cells transfected with either TRPM3 or mGluR6 plus Kir3.1/Kir3.4.
Voriconazole attenuated the ERG b-wave in mice, and inhibited ON-bipolar cell responses evoked by application of CPPG, an mGluR6 antagonist, onto the ON-bipolar cell dendrites, indicating that voriconazole blocks a step in the mGluR6-TRPM1 signal transduction pathway. Voriconazole almost completely blocked capsaicin-activated currents in ON-bipolar cells, which have been attributed to direct activation of the TRPM1 cation channel. Furthermore, application of voriconazole to CHO cells expressing TRPM3, a closely related channel to TRPM1, showed that voriconazole reversibly blocked pregnenolone sulfate–stimulated TRPM3 currents in transfected cells. In contrast, voriconazole only slightly inhibited mGluR6-mediated activation of G-protein activated inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) currents in cotransfected cells, suggesting that mGluR6 is not the primary target of voriconazole in ON-bipolar cells.
The visual disturbances associated with voriconazole are likely due to block of TRPM1 channels in retinal ON-bipolar cells. Other neurological effects of voriconazole may be due to block of TRPM3 channels expressed in the brain.
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