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Alex W Hewitt, Seyhan Yazar, Lucinda J Black, Charlotte M McKnight, Jenny Mountain, Wendy H Oddy, Minas T Coroneo, Robyn Lucas, David A Mackey; Myopia is associated with lower Vitamin D status in young adults.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1273.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Myopia is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Outdoor activity has previously been shown to be protective against the development of myopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between myopia and Vitamin D status in young adults.
A cross-sectional analysis of 946 of individuals participating in the 20-year follow-up of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study was performed. Ethnicity, parental myopia and education status were collected by self-reported questionnaire. A comprehensive ophthalmic examination was performed, including post-cycloplegic autorefraction and conjunctival UV autofluorescence photography. A blood sample collected was analysed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations. Mann Whitney U test was used to evaluate the association between serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations and prevalence of myopia as well as multivariable logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Myopia was defined as mean spherical equivalent ≤ -0.5 diopters.
Myopic participants (n=221; 23.4%) had lower 25(OH)D3 concentrations compared to non-myopic participants (p=0.003). In univariable analysis, the prevalence of myopia decreased with increasing serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations (OR 0.88; 95CI% 0.82 - 0.94; p <0.001 per 10 nmol/L increase). After adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, ethnicity, parental myopia, education status and sun-exposure, individuals in the highest tertile of serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were less likely to be myopic that those in the lowest tertile (OR 0.60; 95%CI 0.40-0.91; p=0.015).
The prevalence of myopia decreased in association with increasing serum 25(OH)D3 concentration. Individuals with higher vitamin D status were at decreased risk of myopia. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether higher serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is protective against myopia or whether it is acting as an indicator of sun exposure.
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