April 2014
Volume 55, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2014
Peek: Portable Eye Examination Kit. The Smartphone Ophthalmoscope
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • iain livingstone
    Glasgow Centre for Ophthalmic Research, NHS GG&C, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Andrew Bastawrous
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Mario E Giardini
    Dept of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Stewart Jordan
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships iain livingstone, None; Andrew Bastawrous, None; Mario Giardini, None; Stewart Jordan, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2014, Vol.55, 1612. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      ×
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      iain livingstone, Andrew Bastawrous, Mario E Giardini, Stewart Jordan, ; Peek: Portable Eye Examination Kit. The Smartphone Ophthalmoscope. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1612.

      Download citation file:


      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

      ×
  • Supplements
Abstract
 
Purpose
 

Create hardware and software solutions allowing the smartphone to be used to visualise the retina.

 
Methods
 

The target device under investigation is the Samsung Galaxy S3 (Samsung Group). Accompanying software was designed for the android platform to automate such features as optic cup:disc ratio calculation, with a view to aiding diagnosis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. An adaptor clip was designed with Rhinoceros 3D (McNeel and Associates), and manufactured in PolyLactic Acid (PLA) by Fused Filament Fabrication using an Up! Plus 3D printer (PP3DP, China). The optics blanks were cut on a CTR E5 (CTR Lasers, UK) laser cutter and polished by hand using diamond lapping compound, to create a miniature prismatic solution re-routing light from the native flash to become coincident with the optical path.

 
Results
 

Peek provides high-resolution images of the retina sufficient for clinical examination, with a greater field than conventional direct ophthalmoscopy. Images obtained with Peek, along with comparative images using conventional disc photography are demonstrated in Figure 1. The relative differences in field between Peek and other ophthalmoscopic modalities are demonstrated in Figure 2.

 
Conclusions
 

Peek is a low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, comprising a smartphone adaptor that circumvents many of the technically challenging aspects of fundoscopy. The technology takes advantage of the intrinsic auto-focussing features within the smartphone to provide a high-resolution view of the retina through an undilated pupil. The adaptor couples the native mobile LED flash to optical path of the camera, allowing clinicians access to a previously unobtainable view of the retina using a smartphone. The connectivity of smartphone devices adds capacity to transmit retinal findings to secondary care for more effective triage in cases of diagnostic doubt. This low-cost technology has been designed with a view to improving access to ophthalmic diagnostics in resource-poor settings. Trials are underway to assess the impact of the technology in the diagnosis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in a related cluster randomised controlled trial based in Kenya.

 
 
A:Peek smartphone-based retinal imaging B: Clinical standard photograph with NHS GG&C Medical Illustration Topcon TRC-50EX mydriatic camera C: Peek adaptor in use during field study
 
A:Peek smartphone-based retinal imaging B: Clinical standard photograph with NHS GG&C Medical Illustration Topcon TRC-50EX mydriatic camera C: Peek adaptor in use during field study
 
 
Figure 2. Features of Peek, in context of traditional equivalent means of ophthalmoscopy
 
Figure 2. Features of Peek, in context of traditional equivalent means of ophthalmoscopy
 
Keywords: 550 imaging/image analysis: clinical • 688 retina • 627 optic disc  
×
×

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.

×