Purchase this article with an account.
Monique Matsuda, Rodolfo Bonatti, Monica Marquezini, Maria L Garcia, Ubiratan P Santos, Alfesio L Braga, Paloma Gava Krempel, Paulo H Saldiva, Milton Ruiz-Alves, Mario L R Monteiro; Lacrimal cytokines assessment in subjects exposed to different levels of ambient air pollution in a large metropolitan area. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):1877.
Download citation file:
© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Recent experimental data have provided associations between ambient PM2.5 (fine particulate matter ≤2.5μm) and propensity to inflammation, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Similar to respiratory mucosa, the ocular surface is directly exposed to ambient air pollution since only a very thin lacrimal film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants.
To investigate the effect of ambient air pollution on ocular defense, lacrimal film cytokine levels were evaluated twice (each 15 days) in traffic professionals (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, group 1) and workers of a Forest Institute (low pollutants exposure, group 2) from Sao Paulo city. Personal ambient exposure of PM2.5 was 24 hour-recorded by an individual monitor and the tears were collected to measure interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels by multiplex immunoassay.
Traffic professionals presented higher PM2.5 exposure than forest workers (evaluation 1: 41.2±12.1 and 26.9±10 μg/m3 and evaluation 2: 37.5±14.5 and 29.1±16.4 μg/m3, respectively; p<0.001). There were no differences in the average of cytokines between the two groups. However, PM2.5 exposure decreased the IL-5 level in 1.65 pg/mL (p=0.01) and the IL-10 level in 0.78 pg/mL (p=0.003) for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 in the traffic professionals tears as when analyzed by generalized estimating equation.
In conclusion, data on the current study suggest that exposure to high levels of PM2.5 reduces IL-5 and IL-10 levels suggesting either a modulatory action of air pollutants on the immune response or an adaptative response of the ocular surface to ambient air pollution. This study was supported by CNPq 555223/2006-0 and FAPESP 2008/57717-6.
This PDF is available to Subscribers Only