April 2014
Volume 55, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2014
Determinants of Undetected Glaucoma in an Asian Community: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Jacqueline Chua
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  • Baskaran Mani
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore
  • Jiemin Liao
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore
  • Yingfeng Zheng
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
  • Tien Y Wong
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore
  • Tin Aung
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore
  • Ching-Yu Cheng
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Jacqueline Chua, None; Baskaran Mani, None; Jiemin Liao, None; Yingfeng Zheng, None; Tien Wong, None; Tin Aung, None; Ching-Yu Cheng, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2014, Vol.55, 4274. doi:
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      Jacqueline Chua, Baskaran Mani, Jiemin Liao, Yingfeng Zheng, Tien Y Wong, Tin Aung, Ching-Yu Cheng, ; Determinants of Undetected Glaucoma in an Asian Community: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):4274.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: To examine factors influencing undetected glaucoma across three major ethnic groups - Chinese, Malays and Indians - in Singapore.

Methods: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) Study examined a total of 10,033 persons (75.7% response rate), comprising 3,353 Chinese, 3,280 Malays and 3,400 Indians aged 40-80 years. An age-stratified random sample of people residing in south-western Singapore was selected from a national database. Subjects were invited for a structured interview and a standardized comprehensive eye examination, including visual field assessment, based on the same study protocol. Subjects with previously undiagnosed glaucoma (i.e., not answering "yes" to previously being told by a doctor of having glaucoma) were identified after the eye examination.

Results: A total of 361 subjects were diagnosed as having glaucoma. Of them, 286 (79.2%) were unaware of having glaucoma. In the multiple regression analysis, subjects who were unaware of having glaucoma were younger (odds ratio [OR], 1.32, per 5 year, p=0.001) and more likely to be Malay (OR 4.38, p<0.001); had lower education levels (OR 2.08, p=0.036) and less regular eye checks (OR 4.48, p<0.001), were less likely to wear glasses (OR 2.87, p=0.014), and less likely to have undergone cataract surgery (OR 4.10, p<0.001), compared to those who were aware of their condition.

Conclusions: Our study provides population-based data in an Asian community showing that among persons with glaucoma, a large proportion is undetected. Factors associated with undetected glaucoma were younger age, Malay ethnicity, lower education, and under-utilization of eye care resources. This has implications for public health activities to improve glaucoma awareness in these high-risk groups. Tailored ophthalmic services at primary health care level targeted to high risk groups may be warranted.

Keywords: 459 clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: biostatistics/epidemiology methodology • 460 clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: health care delivery/economics/manpower • 613 neuro-ophthalmology: optic nerve  
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