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Jiah Kim, Jin Wook Jeoung, Young Kook Kim, Hyuk Jin Choi, Ki Ho Park, Dong Myung Kim; Is Incidence of Optic Disc Hemorrhages Related to Seasonal Changes?. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):4292.
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Seasonal variation in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases has been reported in many studies. There is evidence of an increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases during the colder autumn and winter and decrease during the warmer summer. Since optic nerve has a direct connection to brain, we investigated seasonal variation in the incidence of optic disc hemorrhages (DHs).
This study included 343,747 eyes of 88,889 subjects who participated in a standardized health screening (including noncontact tonometry and fundus photography) at The Healthcare Gangnam Center of Seoul National University Hospital during the period from January 2004 to December 2012. Two experienced ophthalmologists, who were masked to the subject’s information, independently evaluated fundus photographs to check for the presence of optic DHs. DHs were classified as lamina cribrosa-, cup margin-, disc rim-, or peripapillary-type DH according to its proximal location. Incidence rates per 100 eyes and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by gender, age, and DH subtypes for spring, summer, autumn, and winter.
The estimated incidence of optic DHs was 0.11 per 100 eyes (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.12). Among the seasons, the DH incidence was highest in the autumn (0.12 per 100 eyes; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.15). Among DH subtypes, winter incidence was low for cup margin type-DH (odds ratio (OR) 0.408 versus spring group; 95% CI, 0.198 to 0.838) and winter incidence was highest for disc rim type-DH (OR 2.144 versus spring group; 95% CI, 1.205 to 3.816).
The estimated incidence of optic DHs was 0.11 per 100 eyes. DH incidence appears to be highest in the autumn season. The seasonal effect on DH incidence needs further investigation in different population samples.
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