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Esther M Bowie, Jasmeeta Patel, Michael Chen, Tabassum Ali, Ingrid U Scott, David A Quillen; Vitamin D and Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):4405.
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The purpose of our study is to investigate the role of vitamin D deficiency in diabetic retinopathy.
Retrospective cohort study approved by the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (HMC) Institutional Review Board (IRB). Medical records were reviewed of patients with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM), who had an eye examination at Penn State Hershey Eye Center and a serum 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D level within 12 months of the eye examination. Participants were identified using a computerized database search of patients seen at HMC with an ICD-9 diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and/or vitamin D deficiency between January 2000- April 2013. Exclusion criteria: age < 18 years and retinal vascular disease other than diabetic retinopathy (e.g. hypertensive retinopathy, vein/artery occlusion, sickle cell retinopathy). Logistic regression analysis coefficients, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for statistical analyses.
The charts of 2637 patients were reviewed and 467 met inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were Caucasian (426, 91.22%), women (289, 61.88%) and had no diabetic retinopathy (341, 73.02%). 85 (18.20%) of the patients had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 41 (8.78%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 15 (3.22%) had diabetic macular edema. There was a statistically significant association between type of diabetic retinopathy and patient age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), presence of diabetic macular edema, coronary artery disease, and dialysis. There was a statistically significant association between 25-OH vitamin D level and patient age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, HbA1C, and vitamin D supplementation.
Vitamin D level does not appear to be significantly associated with any type of diabetic retinopathy. Although there was no significant association between vitamin D level and diabetic macular edema /dialysis, our sample size was insufficient.
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