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Mauricio Retuerto, Loretta Szczotka-Flynn, Pranab Mukherjee, Gina Stoll, Jyotsna Chandra, Sara Debanne, Ying Jiang, Mahmoud Ghannoum, ; Microbiome Diversity on Worn Contact Lenses and Bacterial Communities Associated with Care Solution Use and Lid Bioburden. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):5458.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Modern high speed DNA sequencing provides the ability to fully characterize commensal, pathogenic, live and dead bacterial species that adhere to contact lenses (CLs). We assessed the microbiome from monthly disposed lotrafilcon A CLs worn daily wear and defined bacterial communities associated with lid bioburden, a known risk factor for CL inflammatory events, as well as solution use.
84 worn CLs from 42 normal subjects were screened for bacterial presence using 16s rRNA molecular amplification and stratified by whether the subject harboured abnormal lid bioburden within the first 5 months of lens wear and by solution use (peroxide vs. PHMB-preserved multipurpose solution (MPS)). 75% (63/84) of CLs bore 16s rRNA of which the amplification product underwent next generation sequencing via the ION torrent PGM workflow. Abundance data for each lens was calculated and associated with storage solution and lid bioburden. Data were analyzed using Cluster Analysis (Principle Component Analysis) and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Lens biome was defined by 39,111 sequences with a mean of 624 sequences/CL, and consisted of 165 genera. Bacteria defined by >1% abundance were Pseudomonas/Ralstonia, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Halomonas, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Shewanella, Rhodococcus, and Cobetia. 54% of the variance in bacterial communities is explained by solution and lid bioburden. Abundance and bacterial diversity on CLs stored in peroxide was lower than MPS (94 vs.153 genera) with 12 bacteria unique to peroxide vs. 71 unique to MPS. Relative abundance comparisons indicated Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Aggregatibacter, Peptoniphilus and Haemophilus had higher abundance in MPS users (all p <0.05). 143 genera were isolated from CLs in subjects with negative lid bioburden vs. 118 in the high lid bioburden group indicating less diversity in this group. There was greater abundance of Stenotrophomonas and Herbaspirillum in the positive lid bioburden group and Veillonella and Erwinia in the negative bioburden group (p<0.05 ).
Worn CLs harbour an unexpectedly diverse microbial community including commensal, environmental, and pathogenic bacteria. Compared to peroxide, lenses stored in a PHMB-preserved MPS have more abundant and diverse bacterial communities. Lid bioburden contributes to certain bacterial communities on lenses.
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