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Atsushi Hirayama, Ryo Kawasaki, Yoko Shibata, Tsuneo Konta, Hiroto Narimatsu, Takamasa Kayama, Hidetoshi Yamashita, Isao Kubota, Akira Fukao; Narrowing of retinal arterioles might reflect smoking sensitivity, a risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2014;55(13):676.
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The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases rapidly, and it is now recognized as a major cause of death. Although cigarette smoking is well known risk factor of COPD, there are smokers who sensitively worsened their respiratory functions by smoking (“smoking sensitive”) and those who respiratory functions are maintained despite of heavy smoking exposure (“smoking resistant”);. We aimed to investigate whether retinal vessel caliber associates with smoking sensitivity in population-based Japanese adults.
We conducted a community-based longitudinal cohort study, the Takahata study (Yamagata, Japan). A total of 102 male heavy smoker defined as having Brinkman index (cigarette/day×year) ≥400, were identified at baseline examination (2004-2006). Follow-up survey was performed in 2011. We defined the smoking sensitivity as a deterioration of the predict Forced Expiratory Volume 1-second % (%FEV1) >2.5% per year from baseline examination. Retinal vessel caliber was measured using semi-automatic software (IVAN, Wisconsin University, WI) and summarized into the central retinal artery and vein equivalent (CRAE and CRVE). We analyzed the association between baseline retinal vessel caliber and smoking sensitivity using multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, body mass index and/or Brinkman index at baseline.
After follow-up period of 6.7±0.6 years, 13 subjects (12.7%) were considered as being smoking sensitive. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) was significantly associated with the smoking sensitivity so as retinal arteriolar narrowing being marginally significant (OR per 1SD decrease in CRAE: 1.93, 95%CI: 0.95-4.20).
Narrowing of retinal arteriole seems to be associated with deterioration of respiratory function in men related to heavy smoking known as a smoking sensitivity. Based on our analysis, it revealed that our findings did not reach statistical significance due to small sample size; sample size estimation in our study revealed that there is a need to approximately double the sample size or to detect the association between retinal arteriolar narrowing and the smoking sensitivity.
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