June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
High Resolution Color Micrographs and Analysis of Tear Film Breakup
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Peter Ewen King-Smith
    Optometry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
  • Kathleen S Reuter
    Optometry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
  • Carolyn G Begley
    Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
  • Richard J Braun
    Mathematical Sciences, Univerisity of Delaware, Newark, DE
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Peter King-Smith, None; Kathleen Reuter, None; Carolyn Begley, None; Richard Braun, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 2499. doi:
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      Peter Ewen King-Smith, Kathleen S Reuter, Carolyn G Begley, Richard J Braun; High Resolution Color Micrographs and Analysis of Tear Film Breakup. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):2499.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

To study and analyze high resolution color micrographs of non-invasive tear film breakup.

 
Methods
 

Over 10,000 high resolution color micrographs from 126 subjects were examined for signs of tear film breakup. Images covered an area of 200 μm diameter with a resolution of 1 μm. Blur from movement was eliminated by stroboscopic illumination. As described in the results and figures, breakup was recognized as an area bounded by low contrast, colored, contour-like fringes corresponding to the surrounding tear film. Breakup was observed in six subjects. To emphasize these colored fringes, “chromaticity images” were generated to show color information after discarding the luminance information from the lipid layer. Contrast of the recorded and chromaticity images was increased to show details.

 
Results
 

Figs. 1 and 2 give examples of high resolution images of breakup; panels A and B show the recorded and chromaticity images. In both figures, the regions of breakup have a pale orange-red color compared to the surrounding tear film. Fig. 1B shows a breakup area (between arrows) of about 50 μm diameter with additional breakup areas at the edge of the image. In Fig. 1A, the reflectance over the breakup areas is similar to that over the tear film whereas the breakup area has high reflectance in Fig. 2A.

 
Conclusions
 

The orange color of breakup may be due to interference between reflections from the peaks and valleys of the of the tear surface as it is “draped” over the rough surface of the epithelium. Fluid dynamics simulations indicate that localized evaporation could cause the large breakup area in Fig. 2 but not the smaller area in Fig. 1B. In the latter case, circular objects (perhaps lipid droplets), indicated by arrows in Fig. 1A, may contribute to breakup. In Fig. 2A, arrows indicate dark areas which may be gaps between epithelial cells caused by osmotic shrinkage. The high reflectance in Fig. 2A may be caused by increased refractive index of the ocular surface, again due to osmotic shrinkage.  

 
Fig. 1. Recorded (A) and “chromaticity” (B) images of tear film breakup, 54 year old white female, normal Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI, score. See text for details.
 
Fig. 1. Recorded (A) and “chromaticity” (B) images of tear film breakup, 54 year old white female, normal Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI, score. See text for details.
 
 
Fig. 2. Recorded (A) and chromaticity (B) images of tear film breakup, 62 year old white female, normal OSDI score. See text for details.
 
Fig. 2. Recorded (A) and chromaticity (B) images of tear film breakup, 62 year old white female, normal OSDI score. See text for details.

 
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