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Chikako Sannohe, Yoko Ikeda, Kazuhiko Mori, Hiromi Yamada, Satsuki Tsuzaki, Morio Ueno, Masakazu Nakano, Kengo Yoshii, Shigeru Kinoshita; Female risk factors for primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):3689.
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There have been several reports regarding the female glaucoma risk factors for systemic factors. However, the relationship between female hormones and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or normal tension glaucoma (NTG) has yet to be fully elucidated. The purpose of this present study was to investigate the systemic risk factors, including female hormone, and other systemic and ophthalmic factors, among female Japanese POAG and NTG patients and normal controls (NC).
This study involved 422 females who were interviewed about their menarche age and menopause age; 69 POAG patients (mean age: 68.9 age: years), 216 NTG patients (mean age: 68.2±10.0 years), and 137 normal control subjects (mean age: 65.1 age: years). The glaucoma patients were enrolled at Sannohe Eye Clinic, Aomori, Japan and at Oike-Ikeda Eye Clinic, Kyoto, Japan from June 2010 to November 2014. The normal control subjects were enrolled at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan from March 2005 to November 2014, and were diagnosed by glaucoma specialists as normal after undergoing optic disc imaging. Female hormone factors included menarche and menopause age, periods between menarche and menopause. Systemic factors included Body Mass Index (BMI), the existence of systemic diseases [i.e., diabetes mellitus (DM), heart disease (HD), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL)]. Ophthalmic factors included family history of glaucoma (FH), axial length, refractive errors with phakic eye. All factors were evaluated in relation to glaucoma type using logistic regression analysis. If data was available from both eyes, right-eye data was used.
Logistic regression analysis showed no significant factors between POAG and NC. However, significant factors existed between NTG and NC: BMI (odds ratio: 0.9, p=0.028), FH (odds ratio: 3.2, p=0.003), and menarche age (odds ratio: 0.7, p=0.001). Significant factors existed between POAG including with NTG and NC, BMI (odds ratio: 0.9, p=0.027), FH (odds ratio: 3.0, p=0.006), and menarche age (odds ratio: 0.7, p=0.001).
The female glaucoma risk factors for NTG and POAG were different from our dataset. Low BMI, FH of glaucoma, early menarche age were risk factors only in women with NTG.
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