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Cynthia Xin-Ya Qian, Eiichi Hasegawa, Luis Haddock, David M Wu, Shizuo Mukai; Smartphone fundus photography, in vivo retinal fluorescent photography and fluorescein angiography in mouse eyes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):4104.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To describe a technique of fundus photography, in vivo fluorescent retinal photography and fluorescein angiography in mouse eyes using a smartphone
Wild-type mice with normal fundi and with retinal detachment and retinas expressing Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) or Discosoma Red Fluorescent Protein (DsRed) secondary to adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection or electroporation. After pharmacologic mydriasis, the mice were gently held in hand without anesthesia. Using a modification of our techniques previously described for human and rabbit eyes (Haddock et al. J Ophthalmol 2013, Article ID 518479) fundus photography was carried out using an iPhone 5s® or iPhone 6® and a 78D lens (as compared to 20D and 28D lenses for human and rabbit eyes respectively). For in vivo fluorescent photography of retinas transduced with GFP or DsRed, an excitation filter (but no barrier) for fluorescein angiography from an old fundus camera was placed in front of the LED light source but not the camera lens of the iPhone®. For fluorescein angiography, an excitation filter was place in front of the LED and a barrier filter was placed in front of the camera lens, and images were taken after intraperitoneal injection of fluorescein.
Using this system we were able to consistently take high-quality video clips and fundus photographs in the eyes of awake mice. The use of an excitation filter allowed for fluorescent photography of the patches of subretinal GFP and DsRed transgene expression. Using a combination of excitation and barrier filters we were able to perform fluorescein angiography in wild-type mice.
We demonstrated that with a modification of a previously described system for human and rabbit eyes, fundus photography, in vivo retinal fluorescent photography and fluorescein angiography can be performed using the iPhone®. This technique is relatively inexpensive, readily available, and very portable.
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