June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Anthony P Khawaja
    University of Cambridge, London, United Kingdom
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital & UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
  • Henriet Springelkamp
    Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • Nomdo M Jansonius
    Ophthalmology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • Paul J Foster
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital & UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, United Kingdom
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Anthony Khawaja, None; Henriet Springelkamp, None; Nomdo Jansonius, None; Paul Foster, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 4338. doi:
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      Anthony P Khawaja, Henriet Springelkamp, Nomdo M Jansonius, Paul J Foster, European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium; Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):4338.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

Previous population studies examining intraocular pressure (IOP) have had limited statistical power to identify small associations, and have not compared IOP between countries. The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a collaborative network of population-based studies. We conducted a large cross-sectional study of Europeans from 12 studies in 6 countries, with the aim of identifying systemic and ocular associations with IOP, and to test for an association between latitude and IOP.

 
Methods
 

IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry in 6 studies and non-contact tonometry in 6 studies. Mean IOP of right and left eyes was used in analyses. We excluded participants with a history of glaucoma. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression analysis with IOP as the outcome variable, and age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and spherical equivalent (SE) together as explanatory variables. Results from each study were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. The association between age and IOP was further tested stratified into age groups. A standardized IOP was calculated for each study using set values for covariables (age 65 yrs, sex 1.5, SBP 135 mmHg, height 165 cm, BMI 25 Kg/m2, SE 0 D) and association of standardized IOP with latitude was tested using meta-regression.

 
Results
 

We analysed data from 43,500 phakic participants aged 49 to 81 years. As shown in the Table, higher IOP was observed in men (P=0.004) and with higher BMI (P<0.001), shorter height (P<0.001), higher SBP (P<0.001) and more myopic refraction (P<0.001). A Forest plot for the height association is shown in the Figure. An inverted U-shaped trend was observed between age and IOP, with IOP increasing up to the age of 60 and decreasing in participants older than 70 years (Table). Mean standardized IOP for all studies was 14.8 mmHg (95% CI 14.3, 15.3). We found no significant association between standardized IOP and study location latitude (P=0.76).

 
Conclusions
 

We report a novel association of lower IOP in taller people, and an inverted-U shaped association of IOP with age. We found no evidence of significant variation in IOP across Europe, supporting the necessary collaborative pooling of data from studies examining the genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans.  

 
Table: Associations with IOP.
 
Table: Associations with IOP.
 
 
Figure: Forest plot for the association between height and IOP.
 
Figure: Forest plot for the association between height and IOP.

 
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