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Matthew S Muller, Thomas Gast, Jeffrey Clendenon, Allen W Ingling, Kenneth A Stanfield, Jason J Green, Karthikeyan Baskaran, Bryan Haggerty, Todd Peabody, Ann E Elsner; Non-mydriatic color fundus imaging with the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):5250.
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To provide non-mydriatic confocal color fundus imaging of sufficient quality for screening for diabetic retinopathy despite dark fundus pigmentation, small pupil, high refractive error, or other anterior segment issues.
Non-mydriatic color fundus images of 34 volunteers (aged 39.2 ± 13.2 yr) were acquired using the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO). 10 subjects had dark fundi and/or high refractive errors, as well as other anterior segment issues. Unique to retinal cameras, the Digital Light Ophthalmoscope (DLO) uses a digital light projector with LED light sources to provide the illumination for both confocal imaging and fixation stimuli. The DLO projects a series of lines across the fundus that is synchronized to the electronic rolling shutter read-out on a 2D CMOS sensor, providing high contrast confocal imaging that is highly customizable through software. Monochromatic 40 deg field images were acquired with alternating red and green LED illumination at 14.3 Hz and overlayed to present a pseudo-color image to the operator in real time. To reduce pupil constriction and patient discomfort while maintaining strong blood absorption, the green illumination was long-pass filtered with a 570 nm filter, and a 1.5mm entrance pupil and time-averaged power of <30 uW was used.
The DLO provided gradable quality non-mydriatic fundus images in all tested subjects, including those with dark fundi or pupils < 2 mm, as judged by an EyePACS certified grader. The use of long pass filters in the green LED permitted high contrast, non-mydriatic images with illumination wavelengths >570 nm and limited pupil constriction. Retinal vessels at the 4th branch or smaller, as well as neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy, could be seen. Hyperpigmentation was clearly seen both peripherally as bear tracks and centrally at the posterior pole. The aperture width and color balance can be adjusted to provide high contrast and yet relatively uniform and natural color across the image.
The DLO provides confocal color fundus images in real time without the use of short (< 570nm) wavelength light. Despite recruiting an especially challenging population that included dark fundi, small pupils, high refractive errors, and media issues, we achieved a 100% success rate in obtaining gradable images for screening.
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