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Marianna Atiya, David Poulsen, Ethan K Sobol, Grace Honik, Jose Diaz, Jonathan Powell, David C Gritz; A Case-Control Study of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Bronx Epidemiology of HIV Eye Studies (BEHIVES). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):5754.
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Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) has an estimated incidence of 1.5 to 6.4 cases per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of developing HZO among patients who are positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and among patients with history of atopic disease.
This study utilized hospital-based controls for the study period from May 1, 2006 to May 31, 2014. Inclusion criteria involved Bronx residents diagnosed with new-onset HZO during the eight-year study period at Montefiore Medical Center. Hospital-based controls were drawn from unique outpatients visits at Montefiore Medical Center during the study period. Controls were chosen randomly in a 4:1 ratio and were time-matched to HZO cases. Medical records were reviewed to confirm inclusion criteria and the data were used to calculate odds ratios for developing HZO in HIV-positive patients and in patients with history of atopic disease.
170 patients were diagnosed with new-onset HZO during the study period. Compared to hospital-based controls (n=680), HIV infection was shown to increase the odds of HZO by 6.63 (95% CI 2.96-14.8, p<0.001), and history of atopic disease was shown to increase the odds of HZO by 2.55 (95% CI 1.50-4.37, p=0.001).
Infection with HIV and history of atopic disease are significant risk factors for having a new-onset case of HZO. This is a particularly important association in the Bronx, where the prevalence of HIV infection is over 3.6 times greater than in the United States overall.
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