June 2015
Volume 56, Issue 7
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   June 2015
Risk of Injury to Ocular Tissues from Primary Blast Overpressure Exposure
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Randolph D Glickman
    Dept of Ophthalmology, Univ of Texas Hlth Sci Ctr SA, San Antonio, TX
    Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
  • Walter Gray
    Geosciences, Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
  • Brian Lund
    Ocular Trauma, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Joint Base San Antonio, TX
  • William Eric Sponsel
    Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
    WESMD Professional Associates, San Antonio, TX
  • Daniel Sherwood
    Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
  • Matthew Aaron Reilly
    Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships Randolph Glickman, None; Walter Gray, None; Brian Lund, None; William Sponsel, None; Daniel Sherwood, None; Matthew Reilly, None
  • Footnotes
    Support None
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science June 2015, Vol.56, 6029. doi:
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    • Get Citation

      Randolph D Glickman, Walter Gray, Brian Lund, William Eric Sponsel, Daniel Sherwood, Matthew Aaron Reilly, ; Risk of Injury to Ocular Tissues from Primary Blast Overpressure Exposure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2015;56(7 ):6029.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract
 
Purpose
 

To estimate the risk of injury to ocular tissues following exposure to survivable primary blast overpressure.

 
Methods
 

Fifty-three porcine eyes were included in the study as reported by Sherwood et al. (IOVS 55:1124-1132, 2014). Forty were exposed to primary blast overpressure using a large shock tube while the remainder were treated in an identical manner with the exception of blast exposure. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and histopathology were used to evaluate each eye. A cumulative injury score (CIS; Sherwood et al., IOVS 2014) was assigned for each tissue. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of achieving a given CIS score for each tissue at a given level of blast energy.

 
Results
 

The likelihood and severity of injury to the sclera, angle, choroid, retina, and optic nerve head increased significantly with specific impulse, i.e., the area under the pressure-time trace created by the blast pressure waveform (Fig. 1).

 
Conclusions
 

Primary blast exposure can cause significant ocular injuries even at low blast energy levels. The probability of these injuries approach unity as the specific impulse approaches 1000 Pa-s.  

 
Figure 1: Probability of achieving a cumulative injury score of 1-4 in the (A) sclera, (B) angle, (C) choroid, (D) retina, and (E) optic nerve head. Curves were generated from experimental data wherein ex vivo porcine eyes were exposed to blast overpressure having specific impulse up to 190 Pa-s (300 Pa-s reflected pressure).
 
Figure 1: Probability of achieving a cumulative injury score of 1-4 in the (A) sclera, (B) angle, (C) choroid, (D) retina, and (E) optic nerve head. Curves were generated from experimental data wherein ex vivo porcine eyes were exposed to blast overpressure having specific impulse up to 190 Pa-s (300 Pa-s reflected pressure).

 
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