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Andree Henaine-Berra, Igal Meir Zand-Hadas, Fernando Schoonewolff, J. Jans Fromow-Guerra, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre; Prevalence of Macular Anatomic Abnormalities in Eyes with High Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):2106.
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To determine the prevalence of foveoschisis, foveal detachment, vascular traction, epiretinal membrane and macular hole in eyes with high myopia, assessed by Spectral Domain OCT.
Cross-sectional study. Eyes with myopia over 8 diopters were included. Axial lenght was measured using optical coherence biometry (IOL Master, Carl Zeiss Meditec). Spectral domain OCT images from the macula were obtained using the Spectralis HRA-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering). A 6x6 mm macular cube centered on the fovea was evaluated using 50 horizontal and 50 vertical evenly-spaced scans. Images were analyzed looking for foveoschisis, foveal detachment, vascular traction, epiretinal membrane, macular hole and/or posterior staphyloma. Eyes with keratoconus, previous ocular surgery, choroidal neovascularization and/or significant media opacities were excluded. Results were analyzed using the Chi-squared test.
One hundred and sixteen eyes of 72 patients were included. Female to male ratio was 3:1. Age ranged from 11 to 70 years. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was -0.49 (logMAR). Mean spherical equivalent was -15.04 ± 5.33 D. Mean axial length was 28.88 ± 2.31 mm. Foveoschisis was observed in 17 eyes (14.65%), vascular traction in 17 eyes (14.65%), epiretinal membrane in 13 eyes (11.2%), lamellar macular hole in 2 eyes (1.72%), and posterior staphyloma in 41 eyes (35.34%). No eyes with foveal detachment were observed. The presence of foveoschisis, vascular traction and epiretinal membrane was more frequent in eyes with posterior staphyloma (p=0.0001).
Macular anatomic abnormalities were observed in 22.41% of eyes with myopia of 8 diopters or higher, and in 53.65% of patients with posterior staphyloma. Our study suggests that the presence of posterior staphyloma is a predisposing factor for macular anatomic abnormalities.
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