March 2012
Volume 53, Issue 14
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   March 2012
Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • Ching-Yu Cheng
    Department of Ophthalmology,
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Tin Aung
    Department of Ophthalmology,
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Yingfeng Zheng
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Xiang Li
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Ainur R. Anuar
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Merwyn Chew
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Baskaran Mani
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Seang-Mei Saw
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health,
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Tien Y. Wong
    Department of Ophthalmology,
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • SEED Study Group
    National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  Ching-Yu Cheng, None; Tin Aung, None; Yingfeng Zheng, None; Xiang Li, None; Ainur R. Anuar, None; Merwyn Chew, None; Baskaran Mani, None; Seang-Mei Saw, None; Tien Y. Wong, None
  • Footnotes
    Support  National Medical Research Council Grant 0796/2003; Biomedical Research Council Grant 501/1/25-5 and Grant 08/1/35/19/550, Singapore
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science March 2012, Vol.53, 6376. doi:
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      Ching-Yu Cheng, Tin Aung, Yingfeng Zheng, Xiang Li, Ainur R. Anuar, Merwyn Chew, Baskaran Mani, Seang-Mei Saw, Tien Y. Wong, SEED Study Group; Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease (SEED) Study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2012;53(14):6376.

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Abstract

Purpose: : To compare the difference in the distributions of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) across three ethnic groups - Chinese, Malays and Indians - in Singapore.

Methods: : Between 2004 and 2011, we conducted three population-based studies of ethnic Malays, Indians and Chinese aged 40 years or older residing in Singapore. An age-stratified random sample of people residing in southwestern Singapore was selected from a national database. Participants were invited for a standardized comprehensive eye assessment based on the same study protocol. IOP readings were obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry before pupil dilation. CCT was measured with ultrasound pachymetry.

Results: : We examined a total of 10,016 persons (75.7% response rate), comprising 3,280 Malays, 3,400 Indians and 3,336 Chinese. The mean (SD) IOP in the Chinese, Malay, and Indian participants without history of glaucoma was 14.7 (3.1), 15.3 (3.7), 15.8 (2.9) mmHg, respectively (P <0.001). There were 3.0%, 6.2%, 4.0% of the eyes in the Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively, with an IOP of 21 mmHg or higher (P <0.001). The Chinese participants on average had 1.0 (P <0.001) and 1.6 mmHg (P <0.001) lower IOP than the Malays and Indians, respectively, after adjustments for age, gender, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature, lens status (phakic/pseudophakic/ aphkic), systolic blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes status. The mean (SD) CCT was 552.6 (33.5), 540.9 (33.6) and 540.6 (35.7) μm in the Chinese, Malay and Indian participants, respectively (P <0.001). In the Chinese participants, 8.1% of the eyes showed a CCT greater than 600 μm, while only 4.3% of the eyes did in the Malays and Indians (P <0.001). On average, the Chinese participants had 12.2 μm (P <0.001) and 13.1 μm (P <0.001) thicker CCT than the Malays and Indians, respectively, after adjustments for age, gender, corneal curvature, axial length, lens status, and body mass index.

Conclusions: : In the SEED Study, Chinese have lower IOP but thicker CCT, compared with the other two ethnic groups. This disparity across ethnic groups should be taken into account by future studies investigating IOP and CCT as risk factors or diagnostic tests for glaucoma in Asian populations.

Keywords: intraocular pressure • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: risk factor assessment 
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