April 2009
Volume 50, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   April 2009
Testability of Vision and Refraction in Preschool Children: The Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Error Study in Singapore Children
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • M. J. Trager
    Ophthalmology, Univ California - San Franscisco, San Francisco, California
  • M. Dirani
    Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Q. Fan
    Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • G. Gazzard
    Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore, Singapore
  • P. Selvaraj
    Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • A. Chia
    Ophthalmology, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore, Singapore
  • T.-Y. Wong
    Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
  • T. L. Young
    Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina
  • R. Varma
    Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  • S.-M. Saw
    Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  M.J. Trager, None; M. Dirani, None; Q. Fan, None; G. Gazzard, None; P. Selvaraj, None; A. Chia, None; T.-Y. Wong, None; T.L. Young, None; R. Varma, None; S.-M. Saw, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  National Medical Research Council NMRC/1009 /2005
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science April 2009, Vol.50, 1586. doi:
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      M. J. Trager, M. Dirani, Q. Fan, G. Gazzard, P. Selvaraj, A. Chia, T.-Y. Wong, T. L. Young, R. Varma, S.-M. Saw; Testability of Vision and Refraction in Preschool Children: The Strabismus, Amblyopia and Refractive Error Study in Singapore Children. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):1586.

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Abstract

Purpose: : To determine the testability of several vision and refraction tests in preschool-aged children.

Methods: : 1,542 Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 months to 72 months were recruited through door-to-door screening of government-subsidized apartments in Singapore. Trained eye professionals administered all tests, including monocular logMAR visual acuity with the Sheridan Gardiner chart, monocular Ishihara color testing, biometric measurements using IOLMaster, and Randot stereoacuity for children 30 to <72 months old. Cycloplegic refraction and keratometry measurements were also determined using a table mounted autorefractor (Canon Autorefractor RK-F1) in children 24 to <72 months old.

Results: : Testabilities were 84.8% for visual acuity (40.7% for age 30 to <36 months, 70.8% for age 36 to <42 months, 86.7% for age 42 to <48 months, 94.8 for age 48 to <44 months, 98.6 for age 54 to <66 months, and 98.7% for age 66 to <72 months), 81.1% for the Ishihara color test, 82.2% for Randot stereoacuity, 62.2% for table mounted autorefraction, and 91.7% for IOLMaster. All testabilities significantly increased with age (P < 0.0001). Girls had higher testability rates than boys for the autorefraction and Randot stereoacuity tests (P = 0.036 and 0.008, respectively).

Conclusions: : The vision and refraction tests were testable in a high proportion of preschool-aged, Chinese Singaporeans. Preschool children in older age groups are likely to successfully complete these tests, with important implications for determining age limits for screening in the community and clinic.

Keywords: visual acuity • clinical (human) or epidemiologic studies: biostatistics/epidemiology methodology • amblyopia 
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