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C. G. Herriot, T. Carvelho, R. S. Allison, E. L. Irving; Efficacy and User Acceptance of Computer Gaming Paradigms for Convergence Insufficiency. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):3827.
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Twelve participants with convergence insufficiency and six without were asked to play a three-dimensional version of Pac-Man using a stereoscope to fuse two separate images. As a participant improved, the convergence demand increased and operant conditioning paradigms were used to keep the participant motivated. Three other participants with convergence insufficiency were asked to perform fusional vergence training with vectograms and pencil push-ups. Training lasted two weeks, with measurements of binocularity taken at the initial, 1-week, and final appointments. Participants completed a visual symptom questionnaire prior to their training and both a visual symptom questionnaire and an acceptance questionnaire after completion.
Both groups with convergence insufficiency had similar improvement in near point of convergence, positive fusional vergence, and reports of eye strain; however, participants in the game-based vision training group were more likely to rate the training as fun and motivating than participants assigned to traditional vision training. The group without convergence insufficiency showed little improvement in near point of convergence and positive fusional vergence but also reported that game-based vision training was fun and motivating.
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