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L. M. Hopker, C. Yabumoto, F. M. Pradella, V. M. Sakata, M. Yabiku, K. P. Crema, M. B. Bornhausen, A. T. R. Moreira, L. M. Sakata, K. Sakata; Distribution of Intraocular Pressure and Vertical Cup to Disc Ratio in 6,083 Children From the South Region of Brazil. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2009;50(13):4083.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP) and vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR) distribution in a South Brazilian children population.
This cross-sectional observational study evaluated children from 6-12 years old from two cities in Southern Brazil. All children attending the elementary schools were invited to participate. Screening examination included medical interview, visual acuity, tonometry and fundoscopy. Properly trained Ophthalmology residents measured the IOP using Perkins tonometry, and subjectively assessed the VCDR using a direct ophthalmoscope. A fellowship glaucoma specialist helped examiners to determine the VCDR when needed. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used.
6,083 children were examined. The mean age was 8.6±1.69 years old, 50.5% were women, and 75.2% self-reported their race as white.IOP measurements could be obtained in 5938 (97.6%) children. The mean IOP of right eye was 12.0±2,2mmHg (97.5 and the 99.5 percentile were 17 and 19 mmHg, respectively). The median VCDR for the right eye was 0.2 (97.5 and 99.5 percentile were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively). As per IOP results, there was no difference in the IOP between boys and girls (12.0± 2.3mmHg; 12.0±2.2mmHg; p=0.75 - adjusted for race/age), and no difference between white and non-white (12.1± 2.2mmHg vs. 11.9± 2.2mmHg; p=0.052 - adjusted for gender/age). There was no significant association between age and IOP (R²= 0.001, p=0.47 - adjusted for gender/race). As per VCDR results, boys showed a greater VCDR than girls (p=0.002 - adjusted for race/age), however, there were no differences of the VCDR between white and nonwhites (p= 0.092 - adjusted for age/gender). No significant association between age and VCDR (R²=0.005, p=0.27 - adjusted for gender/race) was found. 75 (1.23%) children with glaucomatous appearing optic discs are undergoing longitudinal monitoring and 9 (0.15%) children had IOP > 21mmHg.
This study showed the IOP and subjectively assessed VCDR distribution in South Brazilian children from 6 to 12 years of age. Boys showed a greater VCDR than girls. There was no difference of the VCDR between races, and no difference of the IOP between genders or races. There was no association between age vs. IOP and age vs. VCDR.
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