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M. Singh, G. Jean-Louis, F. Zizi, D. Lazzaro, F. McKoy, M. Dweck, D. Blanco; Visual Impairment, Sleep Duration, and Depression: The National Health Interview Survey. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):334.
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In this study, we examined whether the relationship between visual impairment and depression is mediated by habitual sleep duration.
In our analysis, we used data from the National Health Interview Survey conducted in 2005. The survey used a cross-sectional, multistage area probability design to acquire data from U.S. households. A total of 29,818 adults representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. population (mean age = 48 ± 18 yrs) participated in the study. Respondents answered questions during face-to-face interviews about chronic conditions. They also provided sociodemographic data, estimated habitual sleep duration, and rated depressed moods experienced in past 30 days (low scores represented greater depression).
Of the sample, 44% were men and 56% were women; Whites and Blacks represented 85% and 15%, respectively. At the time of the interview, 61% had a job. Overall, 35% indicated functional limitation due to chronic conditions: 28% reported hypertension; 8%, heart disease; 8%, cancer; 9%, diabetes; and 23%, arthritis. Ten percent reported visual impairment even with glasses or lens. The average respondent slept 7 hrs habitually. Fisher’s Exact test indicated visually impaired individuals were more likely to report short (≤5 hrs) or long (≥9 hrs) sleep duration [28% vs. 16%; Χ2=258, p<0.0001] than their counterparts. ANOVA results indicated that they were more depressed [18 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 4; F=1239, p<0.0001]. However, effects of visual impairment on depression were dependent on habitual sleep duration [F=27, p<0.0001]; individuals reporting both visual impairment and short/long sleep tended to be more depressed. The model adjusted for age, sex, and race effects on depression.Discussion:Individuals with visual impairment experience more depression and are characterized by a higher prevalence of short and long sleep. Depression is worse among respondents who reported visual impairment and sleeping unusually less or more than the population mode.
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