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G. W. Ousler, III, K. Brazzell, T. Durham, P. Walker, R. T. Anderson, M. B. Abelson; A Correlation Between Central Corneal Staining and Visual Function in Patients Diagnosed With Dry Eye. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):410.
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The cornea is a unique and complex tissue that refracts and transmits light to the lens and retina while providing protection for inner ocular structures. The central 5 mm of the cornea and pre-corneal tear film account for at least two-thirds of the refractive power of the human visual system. This study was designed to investigate impairment of visual function consistent with central corneal staining.
One hundred and six (106) eyes were evaluated: 54 eyes with central corneal staining and 52 control eyes with no central staining (central corneal staining scores of 0). Outcome measures included tear film break up time, fluorescein staining, and a series of visual function tasks including the inter-blink interval visual acuity decay (IVAD), reading rates, glare test, and BCVA (ETDRS). Patients also completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI).
Patients with central corneal staining maintained their BCVA for a shorter amount of time (M=6.23sec, SD=4.31sec) during an extended inter-blink interval (without ocular anesthetic) than those without central staining (M=9.20sec, SD=8.91sec) as measured by the IVAD, p=.026. Patients with central staining also had longer reading rates (M=12.60sec, SD=4.51sec) than those without central staining (M=10.21sec, SD=3.04sec), p=.02. Data from the questionnaire measures demonstrated that patients without central staining had higher scores on the OSDI (M=6.73, SD=4.62) than those with central staining (M=4.47, SD=3.09), p=.006.
This data shows that dry eyes with central corneal staining have more profound visual function deficits than those without central corneal staining.
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