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L. E. Dreer, J. S. Cheavens, J. Bambara, E. Bjelke, D. DeCarlo, M. Swanson, T. R. Elliott, C. Owsley; An Investigation of Hope and Depression Among Older Adult Patients in Low Vision Rehabilitation. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):1171.
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Examined associations between hope and depression among older adults in low vision rehabilitation.
We used the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression-Scale (CES-D) as the main outcome measure. Predictor measures included demographic variables (gender, age, level of education), logMAR scores in the better eye, and an empirically-validated Hope Scale which measures one’s perception of themselves as being capable of generating workable routes to desired goals given potential impediments (pathways scale) and a motivational component which evaluates the perceived capacity to initiate and sustain movement along various pathways toward desired goals (agency). Multiple regression was conducted to predict depression scores with demographic variables, visual acuity (logMAR scores, better eye), "pathways thinking" (reflects the perceived ability to produce successful avenues to desired goals), and "agency thinking" (i.e., involves thoughts about one’s ability to initiate and sustain movement along pathways toward desired goals) as the predictor variables.
Ninety-four persons (age range 65-98, M = 78); 34 men and 60 women who entered a university-based low vision rehabilitation clinic completed measure following their initial clinical evaluation. Eighty-eight of the participants were Caucasian, 6 were African-American. Univariate correlations found that demographic variables and better eye logMAR scores were unrelated to depression and thus were not included in the final regression model. Perceived lack of an ability to produce successful avenues toward desired goals (pathways) accounted for 13% of the variance in depression. An additional 15% of the variance, over and above pathways scores, was related to an inability to initiate and sustain movement along various pathways toward desired goals (agency).
Components of hopeful thinking are important in the prediction of depression among patients seen in a low vision rehabilitation clinic. Implications will be discussed for fostering these key aspects of hope theory into brief interventions that may help patients overcome obstacles in low vision rehabilitation and find more adaptive ways to the goals that they have set for themselves or that they are faced with in daily living due to changes in vision.
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