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H. S. Reddy, M. Torres, R. Varma, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES); Myopia and Glaucoma in Adult Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):1557.
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Myopic refractive error (MRE) has been proposed as a risk factor for open angle glaucoma (OAG). However, because MRE increases in older adults due to nuclear opacification, we propose to study axial length (AL) as an additional measure of myopia. Specifically, this study examines 1) the association between MRE and the prevalence of OAG in an adult Latino population, and 2) the association between AL and prevalence of OAG.
Data for this analysis is derived from the LALES, a population-based prevalence study of eye disease in Latinos aged 40 years and older. MRE was defined as non-cylcoplegic spherocylindrical refractive error of ≤1 diopter. Pseudophakic and aphakic eyes were excluded from analysis. The associations between MRE, AL and the prevalence of OAG were calculated after adjusting for covariates including age, gender, intraocular pressure, diabetes, and family history by using a logistic regression model. Odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the logistic regression models.
Of the 6357 participants who were examined, 5927 (93%) were included in the analysis. Myopes were significantly more likely to have OAG (8.1%) than non-myopes (3.7%), p<0.0001. After adjusting for covariates, MRE was more likely to be associated with the prevalence of OAG (OR: 1.89, 1.36-2.62; p=0.0002). This association remained after adjusting for severity of nuclear opacification (OR 1.86, 1.32-2.59; p=0.0003). After adjusting for covariates, persons with longer AL had a higher risk of having OAG compared to those with shorter AL (OR 1.33, 1.17-1.50; p<0.0001).
Our study demonstrates that myopic refractive error and longer axial length are risk factors for OAG in adult Latinos. These biometric measures should be included when assessing the risk of open angle glaucoma.
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