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J. E. Gwiazda, L. Deng, F. Thorn, J. D. Gwiazda; The Impact of Parental Myopia and Children’s Refractions at 5 Years on the Development of Myopia in Children by 15 Years of Age. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):2382.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To investigate parental refractive error and children’s refractive error at age 5 years as risk factors for the development of myopia by age 15 years.
185 children with annual refractions from ages 5 to 15 years and with refractions from both parents were included in this analysis. All children were refracted in the laboratory by non-cycloplegic distance retinoscopy. Parents were either refracted in the laboratory or their prescriptions were obtained from their eye care providers. Myopes were defined as having a spherical equivalent refraction < -0.50 D. The effect of number of myopic parents (0, 1, or 2) on children’s refractive error at 15 years stratified by children’s refraction at 5 years was evaluated by a chi square test. Odds ratios were also calculated.
The mean refraction at 5 years was 0.73 +/- 0.68 D and only one child was myopic, while the mean Rx at 15 years was -0.42 +/- 1.35 D and 33% (61/185) were myopic. For children with an Rx at 5 years < 0.75 D, twice as many were myopic at 15 years than for those with an Rx ≥ 0.75 D at 5 years (44/104 = 42.3% versus 17/81 = 21%). In the lower Rx group at 5 years, children with 2 myopic parents had a higher risk of developing myopia by 15 years compared to those with 0 or 1 myopic parent (p = 0.004). There was no assocation between number of myopic parents and myopia by 15 years for children in the higher Rx group at 5 years. These same patterns also were found at 10 years, but with fewer myopic children in each category. Comparing the extreme categories, children with 2 myopic parents and lower refractive errors at 5 years had increased risk of developing myopia by 15 years compared with children with no myopic parents and higher refractive errors at 5 years (Odds ratio = 33.6; 95% CI: 4.08, 276.4).
For children with refractions less than 0.75 D at 5 years, having 2 myopic parents increases the risk of being myopic by 15 years. However, for children with more positive refractions at 5 years, parental myopia does not appear to contribute significantly to the development of myopia by 15 years.
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