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M. Ayaki, Y. Koizumi, Y. Taguchi, E.-I. Nishimura, H. Nishihara, S. Yaguchi, A. Iwasawa; Human Corneal Endothelial Toxicity of Antiglaucoma Ophthalmic Solutions. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):2694.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Millions of patients use antiglaucoma medications everyday. Their corneal epithelial toxicity has been extensively evaluated; however, endothelial toxicity remains unknown. We evaluated endothelial toxicity with culture system.
We made primary culture of human corneal endothelial cells, derived from eye bank specimens. Following incubation for two days in media with various dilutions of the different solutions, cell survival was measured using a WST-1 assay. Test solutions included XalatanR, ResculaR, 0.5% TimololR, 2% CalteorolR, TorsoptR, AzoptR, DetantolR, HypadilR, and ingredients (benzalkonium, chlorobutanol, polysorbate, benzoates). Cell survival was compared to that for the control solution (distilled water added), and was presented as a percentage of the control value.
The corneal endothelial survival rate was around 20% in original ophthalmic solutions except for HypadilR showing 36% survival. The survival rates of all were better than 85% after 100x or more dilution except for DetantolR. Benzalkonium and polysorbate seemed significantly toxic because their survival rates were approximately 20% in estimated concentration added in ophthalmic solutions, whereas survival rates of other ingredients were more then 80%.
Antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions have corneal endothelial toxicity. Although toxicity remarkably decreases after dilution, clinicians should be aware of them since huge populations use them for a life long time.
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