May 2007
Volume 48, Issue 13
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2007
Super Resolution in Retinal Imaging
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • K. A. Vermeer
    i-Optics, Delft, The Netherlands and Iowa City, Iowa
  • M. H. Mensink
    i-Optics, Delft, The Netherlands and Iowa City, Iowa
  • R. H. Kardon
    Dept. of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
    VA Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa
  • M. D. Abràmoff
    Dept. of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa
    VA Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships K.A. Vermeer, i-Optics, E; Carl Zeiss Meditec, C; M.H. Mensink, i-Optics, I; R.H. Kardon, None; M.D. Abràmoff, i-Optics, I.
  • Footnotes
    Support NIH Grant 1R01EY017066-01
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2007, Vol.48, 2766. doi:
  • Views
  • Share
  • Tools
    • Alerts
      This feature is available to authenticated users only.
      Sign In or Create an Account ×
    • Get Citation

      K. A. Vermeer, M. H. Mensink, R. H. Kardon, M. D. Abràmoff; Super Resolution in Retinal Imaging. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):2766.

      Download citation file:

      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

  • Supplements

To investigate the application of super resolution algorithmson images of the retina.


With an experimental compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO),multiple images of the retina were acquired. The images werenormalized for illumination and contrast. Rigid registrationwas performed based on automatically extracted blood vessels.Image averaging works by averaging the registered image series.Due to the random nature of noise, its amplitude is reduced.Super resolution aims at increasing the resolution of aliasedimages, in which energy in frequencies beyond the Nyquist frequencyare wrapped to lower frequencies. By analyzing multiple shiftedimages, these frequencies may be recovered.


A part of a cSLO scan is shown in figure 1, both in its originalform and after normalization and correction for anisoptropicscanning. 35 scans were averaged or combined in one super resolutionimage, with a 2 times increased resolution. Both results areshown in figure 2; the averaged image was interpolated to obtaina comparable resolution.


Both the averaged and the super resolution image show detailsthat are barely visible in the individual scans. While the superresolution image appears to be sharper, it does not readilyshow smaller details. Due to scanner non-linearities, the rigidregistration fails to consistently achieve sub-pixel accuracy,which is required for super resolution. Analysis of images acquiredby a future cSLO version may show the advantage of super resolutionfor retinal imaging.Figure1. One raw scan (left) and after normalization and correctionfor anisotropy (right).Figure2. Average (left) and super resolution (right). 


Keywords: image processing • retina • diabetic retinopathy 

This PDF is available to Subscribers Only

Sign in or purchase a subscription to access this content. ×

You must be signed into an individual account to use this feature.