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L. R. Pasquale, S. E. Hankinson, B. A. Rosner, W. C. Willett, J. Kang; The Relation Between Caffeine Consumption and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: Result From Two Prospective United States Cohorts. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):4341.
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Caffeine consumption is positively associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucoma patients. In this study, we investigated whether caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
We used 2 large US-based cohorts of women and men respectively, the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, to form a cohort at risk for POAG. Eligible participants were 40+ years old, did not have POAG at baseline, and reported receiving eye examinations during follow-up. Ultimately 78,712 female nurses and 41,667 male health professionals contributed person-time from 1980-2002 and 1986-2002 respectively. Information on caffeine consumption, potential confounders including smoking history and POAG diagnoses was updated using biennial questionnaires. During follow-up, we identified 856 self-reported POAG cases that were confirmed with medical record review. Cohort-specific and pooled analyses across cohorts were conducted to calculate multivariable rate ratios (RR) of POAG and their 95% confidence intervals [95% CI].
Although overall, caffeine consumption was not associated with risk of POAG, very high consumption increased risk. Compared with those consuming < 150 mg/day, (about 1 cup of coffee), the pooled RRs were 1.09 [ 0.89-1.34] for consuming 150-299 mg/day, 0.94 [0.75-1.18] for 300-449 mg/day, 1.31 [1.05-1.64] for 450-559 mg/day and 1.16 [0.94, 1.45] for 600 mg+/day [p for linear trend = 0.11]. However, those consuming the most caffeinated coffee (6 or more cups/day) were at 1.71 fold increased risk [95% CI: 1.15-2.55] compared to those not consuming any coffee [p for linear trend = 0.03]. We did not observe associations with tea intake. Associations were more adverse in relation to POAG with elevated IOP.
Six or more cups of coffee daily were associated with increased risk of POAG; however, lower doses did not appear to influence the risk of POAG.
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