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S.-M. M. Saw, Y.-H. Chan, W.-L. Wong, M. Sandar, A. Shankar, P. Mitchell, T. Aung, D. T. H. Tan, T.-Y. Wong; Prevalence Rates and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors in an Urban Malay Population: The Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES). Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):4900.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in a population-based study of eye diseases in Singaporean Malays.
A population-based, prevalence survey of Malays aged 40-80 years in Singapore was conducted in the South-Western part of Singapore. An age-stratified (10-year age groups) random sampling procedure was used. Standardized comprehensive eye assessments were conducted in a central clinic. Subjective refraction was determined by trained ophthalmologists and autorefraction determined using the Canon RK-F1 table-mounted autorefractor. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) < -0.5 Diopters (D) and high myopia as SE < -5.0 D. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder > 0.5 D, hyperopia as SE > + 0.5 D, and anisometropia as SE difference > 1.0 D. Prevalence rates were adjusted to the 2000 Singapore Census.
Of the 4,168 eligible participants from the sampling frame, 3,280 (78.7%) participated. Refractive error data in the phakic right eyes were available for 2,974 for analysis. The age-adjusted rate of myopia was 26.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.0, 26.4], and high myopia was 3.9% (95% CI 3.8, 4.0). The rates of myopia were higher in females (26.8%) compared with males (22.2%). There was a U-shaped relationship between myopia and age. The age-adjusted rate of astigmatism was 33.3%, hyperopia was 27.4% and anisometropia was 9.9%. In a multiple logistic regression model, adults who were female, had cataract, who used the computer regularly, and who completed higher levels of education, were more likely to be myopic. Adults with myopia, cataract, diabetes, who were shorter, and who were older, had higher risks of astigmatism in multiple logistic regression analysis. Anisometropia was associated with cataract, myopia and older age, while hyperopia was associated with older age in multivariate analyses.
One in four adult Malay persons in Singapore have myopia. Educational level, cataract and computer use are associated with myopia, while cataract, diabetes, height and myopia are associated with astigmatism.
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