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F. Kumase, S. Mohri, Y. Morizane, I. Takasu, H. Ohtsuki, A. Ohtsuka; Glycocalyx Perturbation Seen in Retinal and Choroidal Microvessels of Streptozocin Induced Diabetic or Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats With Special Reference to Leukocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):4980.
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The glycocalyx provides the cell surface with a negatively charged coat that contributes as repulsive molecules in leukocyte-endothelial interaction. The present study aims to clarify whether endothelial glycocalyx thickness may change in the retinal and choroidal microvasculature in diabetic or hypertensive rats, and to examine whether leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be only in areas of the cell surface relatively depleted of leukocyte and endothelial glycocalyx.
We used Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) as a control (n = 5), streptozocin induced diabetic rats (STZ-WKY) (n = 5), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (n = 5). We perfused the eye with a cacodylate-buffered fixatives (pH7.3) containing cationic colloidal iron. After excision of the eye, we postfixed the eye with 1% osmium tetroxide and embedded in epoxy resin. Then we cut the specimen into ultrathin sections. We observed endothelial glycocalyx in retinal and choroidal microvasculature under a transmission electron microscope and quantified its thickness by using NIH image software.
Negatively charged glycocalyx was intensely stained with cationic colloidal iron in WKY. The thickness of endothelial glycocalyx was significantly decreased in the retinal and choroidal microvessels of STZ-WKY and SHR. The glycocalyx thickness in leukocyte-endothelial adhesion areas was significantly decreased both on leukocytes and endothelial cells compared with that in free areas in the choroidal vasculature of STZ-WKY, though we could not find such adhesion sites in SHR.
These findings suggest that endothelial glycocalyx disruption is induced in both diabetic and hypertensive rats and that some glycocalyx disruption is dependent on the process of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in diabetic rats. In addition, according to no leukocytes adherent to endothelial cells in SHR, glycocalyx changes may be also general processes modulating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion unrelated to specific receptors.
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