May 2007
Volume 48, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2007
Inhibition of Ocular Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Ayurvedic Herbs
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • S. W. Zito
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Johns Univ Coll of Pharm, Jamaica, New York
  • N. Kunaparaju
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Johns Univ Coll of Pharm, Jamaica, New York
  • T. Taldone
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Johns Univ Coll of Pharm, Jamaica, New York
  • J. Shinde
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, St Johns Univ Coll of Pharm, Jamaica, New York
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships S.W. Zito, None; N. Kunaparaju, None; T. Taldone, None; J. Shinde, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support None.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2007, Vol.48, 5833. doi:
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      S. W. Zito, N. Kunaparaju, T. Taldone, J. Shinde; Inhibition of Ocular Aldose Reductase by Extracts of Ayurvedic Herbs. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2007;48(13):5833.

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Abstract

Purpose:: In diabetes, the polyol pathway which includes aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, accelerates the formation of sorbitol from glucose in insulin-insensitive tissues leading to the development of cataracts in the lens. In the present study alcoholic extracts of 6 Indian Ayurvedic herbs were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase isolated from rat lenses.

Methods:: Powdered plant material was extracted with 70% ethanol in a soxhlet apparatus for 9-12 hours. The extract was concentrated in vacuo and the aqueous residue lyophilized. The dry extracts were dissolved in 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.4 (1mg/ml) for testing. Aldose reductase was prepared as the 5000g supernatant from a rat lens 10% homogenate in 0.1M phosphate buffer pH 7.4.

Results:: Wrightia tinctoria (Indrajav), Citrullus colocynthis (Indrayan), Aegle marmelos (Bael), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloe), Pongamia glabra (Karanja) and Terminalia chebula (Harad) in 1mg/ml concentrations inhibited aldose reductase to varying degrees. Indrajav (92.92%), bael (64.91%), giloe (72.33%) and harad (95.66%) were the most active and showed concentration dependent inhibition of aldose reductase with IC50’s of 5µg/ml, 50µg/ml, 85µg/ml and 3.1µg/ml respectively. Preliminary acid-base fractionation of the extracts showed inhibitory activity in both the neutral and acid fractions.

Conclusions:: Ayurvedic medicinal herbs are a valuable source for novel aldose reductase inhibitors as lead compounds for the possible prevention of diabetic cataracts.

Keywords: cataract • enzymes/enzyme inhibitors • diabetes 
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