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B. Edghill, J. Ung, J. Smith, T. Brevetti, D. Lazzaro; Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity at the Kings County Hospital Center . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):721.
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To study the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams at an institution serving mainly an African–American and Hispanic population.
Retrospective chart review of 126 consecutive infants with a birth weight less than 1500 grams born at the KCHC between January 1, 2003– December 31, 2004 examined in the neonatal intensive care unit. Staging of retinopathy of prematurity was classified using the international ROP classification. Race was determined by the mother’s stated race.
Out of a total of 126 patients, 8 were Hispanic and 118 were African–American. 24/126 of the infants died prior to discharge from the NICU, 22/126 died prior to having an exam. 8/126 were discharged and 1 was transferred prior to having an exam. This left 95 babies in the study.
Sixty–four percent of the babies born with a birth weight of 1500 grams or less developed ROP.
The group with any form of ROP had a mean gestational age of 26.98 +/– 0.27 weeks. The group without ROP had a mean gestational age of 28.24 +/– 0.46weeks (p value=0.013). The group with any ROP had a mean birth weight of 913.31 +/–30.14 grams. The group without any ROP had a mean birth weight of 1061.39 +/– 37.44 grams. This was statistically significant with a p value of 0.003.
The group with threshold ROP had a mean gestational age of 25.80 +/– 0.61weeks versus the group without threshold ROP who had a mean gestational of 27.60 +/– 0.25 weeks(p value= 0.021).
The group with threshold ROP had a mean birth weight of 774.20+/– 57.459 grams versus the group without threshold ROP, had a mean birth weight of 979.92 +/– 25.359 grams(p value= 0.009).
As expected there is a high correlation between low birth weight and young gestational age(r=0.687).
The incidence of threshold ROP in males versus females was also statistically significant(p= 0.013). The proportion of males that had threshold ROP was 19.5% while the proportion of females was 3.7%. Gestational age and birth weight between males and females were compared and there was no significant difference between males and females.
As expected, low birth weight and short gestation period were the main risk factors for the development of ROP, but it was also found in this African–American, Caribbean–American, and Hispanic group of patients that male gender was an additional risk factor for developing threshold ROP.
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