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C. Sun, G. Tikellis, R. Klein, D.C. Steffens, E.K. M. Larsen, T.Y. Wong, Cardiovascular Health Study; Age–Related Macular Degeneration and Depression in Older People: The Cardiovascular Health Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):2192.
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To examine the association between age–related macular degeneration (AMD) and depression.
The Cardiovascular Health Study is a population–based study conducted in four US communities initiated in 1989–90. A total of 2,194 persons aged 69 to 97 years were included in the current analyses. During the 1997–98 examination, retinal photography was performed on one randomly selected eye and graded for presence of early and late AMD using a modified Wisconsin AMD Grading System. Depressive symptoms were assessed via a modified version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES–D) scale annually from 1989 through 1997–98. Depression was defined as a CES–D score of >7 (top quartile of CES–D score) at the 1997–98 examination. Worsening of depressive symptoms was defined by an increase in CES–D score of ≥ 5 over a 9–year period (between 1989 and 1997–98).
There were 338 (15.6%) individuals with early AMD, 29 (1.3%) persons with late AMD in the study population. The prevalence of depression was 27% (593 of 2,194) in the population. Depression was not associated with the presence of early AMD (multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.73– 1.27), or late AMD (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.32– 2.06). Multinomial logistic regression comparing increasing quartiles of the CES–D scores to the lowest quartile showed no association with early or late AMD status. Worsening of depressive symptoms over a 9–year period was also not associated with early AMD (multivariable adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.67–1.28), or late AMD (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 0.44–2.93).
Our study did not find an association between AMD and depression in older people.
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