May 2006
Volume 47, Issue 13
Free
ARVO Annual Meeting Abstract  |   May 2006
Dietary Carbohydrate Intake and Glycemic Index in Relation to Age–Related Macular Degeneration in the Age–Related Eye Disease Study
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • C.–J. Chiu
    Human Nutrition Research Ctr, Tufts University, Boston, MA
  • R.C. Milton
    AREDS Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD
  • G. Gensler
    AREDS Coordinating Center, The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD
  • A. Taylor
    Human Nutrition Research Ctr, Tufts University, Boston, MA
  • Footnotes
    Commercial Relationships  C. Chiu, None; R.C. Milton, None; G. Gensler, None; A. Taylor, None.
  • Footnotes
    Support  USDA 1950–510000–060–01A, NIH EYRO1 13250, NIH EYRO3 14183, J+J Focused Giving USDA 1950–510000–060–01A, NIH EYRO1 13250, NIH EYRO3 14183, J+J Focused Giving 1. Chiu et al., Long–term dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and odds for early age–related macular degeneration. Am. J. Clin. Nut. in press Running Head: Carbohydrate nutrition and AMD
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science May 2006, Vol.47, 2194. doi:
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      C.–J. Chiu, R.C. Milton, G. Gensler, A. Taylor; Dietary Carbohydrate Intake and Glycemic Index in Relation to Age–Related Macular Degeneration in the Age–Related Eye Disease Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):2194.

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      © ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)

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Abstract

Purpose: : Dietary carbohydrates comprise a large proportion of our energy intake. In vitro, animal and one human (1) study indicate that carbohydrate nutrition may increase the risk for age–related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to test whether recent dietary carbohydrate intake or Glycemic Index (GI), a measure of dietary carbohydrate quality, is associated with the presence of AMD in non–diabetic participants in the Age–Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).

Methods: : A modified Block food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain dietary information from participants in the AREDS. Eyes (4099 persons; 8125 eyes) were classified into one of five groups according to the size and extent of drusen, presence of geographic atrophy (GA), and neovascular (NV) changes of AMD. Associations were examined using eyes as the unit of analysis and the generalized estimating approach was used to account for the lack of independence between the eyes of an individual.

Results: : Compared with eyes in the first quintile of dietary GI, eyes in the fourth and fifth quintiles had significantly or suggestively higher risk for large drusen, GA, and NV. The multivariate–adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quintile were 1.39 (1.04, 1.86), 2.39 (1.05, 5.46), and 1.47 (0.97, 2.41), respectively. All trend tests for the three AREDS AMD groups were significant. The risk for advanced AMD (GA and NV) increased over 50% for those with the upper half of dietary GI values. A significant positive relationship between dietary GI and severity of AMD was also noted. No significant associations with total carbohydrate intake were found.

Conclusions: : Baseline data from AREDS suggest that dietary GI is associated with prevalent AMD and that the higher dietary GI the higher the risk and severity of AMD. Additional study is needed to assess causality.

Keywords: retina, nutrition, carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycation, aging, stress, epidemiology, human, risk factor, age-related macular degeneration • glycoconjugates/glycoproteins • nutritional factors 
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