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M. Surendran, N. Sarvananthan, F.A. Proudlock, I. Gottlob; Distribution Of Refractive Errors In Congenital And Acquired Nystgmus . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):2505.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Kurtosis of the distribution of refractive errors in adults (mean = 7.9, Sorsby et al, 1960) is considered evidence for an active mechanism of emmetropization during development. In contrast, kurtosis has not been found in congenital such as idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) or albinism, suggesting they cause disruption of this process. We compared the distribution of refractive errors in patients with congenital and acquired nystagmus.
The refractive errors of 218 patients with nystagmus were collected. Within the congenital group of patients there were 65 individuals with IIN, 26 with albinism, 30 with latent/manifest–latent nystagmus (MLN), 43 with congenital nystagmus secondary to low vision or retinal disease (SN) and 54 of patients with acquired nystagmus. Ninety–five percent confidence intervals for kurtosis were estimated for each group.
Mean spherical equivalents (±SD, min to max) were +0.94D (±2.83D, –6.75D to +8.50D) for IIN, +0.49D (±4.49D, –10.00D to +7.75D) for albinism, +0.01D (±4.18D, –10.63D to +5.88D) for MLN, –2.50D (±7.85D, –22.00D to +17.50D) for SN and –0.39D (±2.25D, –7.75D to +6.13D) for acquired nystagmus. Mean kurtosis (2.5% to 97.5% C.I.) was 1.13 (0.10 to 2.61) for IIN, 0.15 (–0.99 to 3.30) for albinism, 0.42 (–0.97 to 3.29) for MLN, 1.17 (–0.23 to 3.86) for SN and 2.50 (1.08 to 6.86) for acquired nystagmus.
Kurtosis was lower in congenital nystagmus forms compared to previously described distributions for normals. A small but significant amount of kurtosis was present in IIN as compared to other congenital nystagmus forms suggesting that emmetropization effect is stronger in IIN compare to albinism, MLN and SN. Interestingly, kurtosis was also lower in acquired nystagmus compared to controls although larger than in congenital nystagmus.
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