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H.D. Jampel, K.D. Frick, N.K. Janz, P.A. Wren, D.C. Musch, P.R. Lichter, CIGTS Investigators; Depression, Mood Indicators, and Self–Reported Visual Function at Baseline in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):3382.
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To assess depression and glaucoma–associated mood indicators in subjects newly diagnosed with chronic open angle glaucoma and to correlate these symptoms with clinical measures such as visual acuity, visual fields, and self–reported visual function.
Newly–diagnosed glaucoma patients enrolled in the CIGTS responded at baseline to quality of life interviews centrally administered by telephone. The subset of measures forming the basis of these analyses included the 33–item Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ)–a measure of self–reported visual function, 6 items from a Disease–specific Health Perceptions Index (HPI), and 8 questions from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D). Clinical parameters included visual acuity (Va) and CIGTS better eye visual field (VF). Responses to the HPI and the CES–D were compared to the responses to the VAQ, as well as Va and VF.
Patient’s perception of their visual function (VAQ total score) was significantly correlated with Va (ρ= –0.181, p = 0.002), and VF in the better eye (ρ = 0.139 p = 0.004). Neither Va nor VF was significantly related to depression, anxiety, or mood indicators as measured by the HPI and CES–D. There were, however moderate correlations (ρ ranging from 0.24 to 0.33, all p values ≤0.001) between the total VAQ score and each item on the HPI and CES–D. Both the odds ratio of reporting glaucoma–associated mood indicators and symptoms of depression increased with worsening visual function, measured by the VAQ.
Although we found no significant relationships between symptoms of depression and mood indicators and monocular clinical measures of visual function, there was a relationship between symptoms and self–reported visual function as assessed by the VAQ. While depression may influence a person’s perception of visual function, it is also possible that the impact of changes in vision on daily activities could lead to depression. Analysis of longitudinal data will allow us to determine the effects of treatment of glaucoma and of progressive disease upon patient mood, anxiety, and depression.
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