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F. Yu, A.L. Coleman, K.L. Stone, K.L. Pedula, K.E. Ensrud, J. Cauley, M.C. Hochberg, C.M. Mangione, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group; Association of Fruits and Vegetable Consumption and Glaucoma Among Older Women . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):3449.
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Epidemiologic evidence of the association between antioxidant intake and glaucoma is limited and results are inconclusive. In a cross–sectional study, relationship between consumption of fruits/vegetable and glaucoma is explored in older ambulatory women who participated in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) based on review of prior reports.
Optic nerve photographs from a random sample of women who attended the year 10 (visit 6) clinic visits in SOF in 1997–9 were graded. Glaucoma was independently diagnosed by two glaucoma specialists by reviewing photographs and visual fields, and was adjudicated by a third senior glaucoma specialist. Consumption of fruits/vegetable was assessed by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ). Relationship between selected fruits/vegetable consumption and glaucoma was evaluated using the Fisher’s exact test, and trend was examined using the Cochran–Armitage trend test. The relationship was further analyzed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders including study site, age, race, smoking status, and the presence of diabetes. The analyses were also performed for Caucasian and African American (AA) women separately.
Among 1274 subjects in the random sample, 106 (8.3%) were diagnosed with glaucoma in at least one eye. 44 (3.5%) were determined to have an unknown glaucoma status, and were excluded in the subsequent analyses. 1196 (94%) women completed the FFQ. Women who reported eating >2 carrots per week were less likely to have glaucoma (OR=0.34, p=0.003) compared to those who reported eating <1 per week, and this association was found in both Caucasians (p=0.014) and AA (p=0.044). Eating 1 or more green collards/kale per month was found to be protective for glaucoma (OR=0.28, p=0.009) compared to those ate <1 per month, especially among AA women (OR=0.13, p=0.001). There was a protective trend for glaucoma in AA women of eating more fresh oranges (trend p=0.006), more fresh peaches (trend p=0.021), and more spinach (trend p=0.013).
Our findings suggest that higher intake of carrots may be associated with decreased risk for glaucoma in both older Caucasian and AA women.
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