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A. Dovrat, E. Bormusov, J.E. Roberts, L. Schächter; Mechanisms of Non–Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to the Eye Lens . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2006;47(13):4081.
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To investigate the non–thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on the eye lens epithelium in situ and to define the mechanisms of damage.
Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture conditions for 12 days. 111 lenses were used in this study. The lenses were divided into six groups: (1) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group of 1.1GHz, 2.22mW for 8 days and kept in culture up to 12 days. (2) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group treated as group 1 with the presence of the anti–inflammatory agent 1mM N–acetyl–L–cysteine (NAC) in the culture medium. (3) Electromagnetic radiation exposure group with the presence of the antioxidant Lutein (1.76µM) in the culture medium. (4). Control group kept in culture for 12 days. (5). Control group with the presence of NAC in the culture medium. (6). Control group kept with the presence of Lutein in the culture medium. At the end of the culture period lenses were taken for analysis by inverted microscopy, nucleic acid staining, hexokinase and ATPase activities of the lens epithelium.
Exposure to 2.22mW at 1.1GHz caused damage to the lens epithelium. The damage appeared at the lens epithelial layer accompanied by changes of enzyme activities. There was a reduction in damage in the lenses pretreated with the anti–inflammatory agent NAC during their exposure to electromagnetic radiation but there was little or no effect on the radiation damage with the antioxidant Lutein.
Electromagnetic radiation has a clear impact on the eye lens. Exposure above specific energy levels affects lens epithelium as demonstrated by inverted microscopy and by changes in epithelial enzyme activities. This damage was partially reduced by NAC indicating that inflammation was an important response caused by electromagnetic radiation.
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