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R.T. Y. Chan, C.S. Lam, A.C. Lai, C. Wong, F.Y. Kwok; The Correlations of Binocular Visual Functions, Eye Movements, and Reading Ability of Children With Low Reading Achievements . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2005;46(13):2923.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To compare the performances of binocular visual functions, visual analysis and reading eye movements as a predictor of reading skill in a specific group of primary school children with low reading achievements. Methods: 27 Hong Kong Chinese children aged six to twelve were recruited from a reading course offered by an educational psychologist of a learning center in The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. All of these children were diagnosed as poor readers at the lowest 30% by a standardized Chinese (Leung & Lai–Cheng, 2003) and English (Siegel & Lai–Cheng, 2003) reading tests. They had normal intelligence (IQ 90 or above) and both of their Chinese and English reading achievement was at least one year behind expected levels. Visual and binocular performances were assessed by means of near LogMAR acuity, cover test, randot stereopsis, amplitude of accommodation (RAF rule), accommodative facility, fusion range (prism bar), vergence facility, and fixation disparity. Visual analysis was assessed by Visual Form Constancy (VFC) sub–test of The Visual Perceptual Test (TVPS). Reading eye movements were evaluated by the Visagraph with Chinese reading materials. Reading ability was assessed using The Standardized Graded Character Naming Test for School–age Children in Hong Kong. Results: Positive correlation was found between amplitude of accommodation and the reading test (Pearson correlation; p=0.025), despite the fact that the accommodation in the study group were within normal range. Correlation was also positive between reading eye movements in words/min and the reading test (Pearson correlation; p=0.037). Performances in other areas, including various binocular visual functions and VFC did not correlate to reading performance in these children. Conclusions: Correlation between amplitude of accommodation and reading ability despite normal findings may support correction of even low amount of hyperopia in this specific group of children. Reading test used in this study presented 150 single Chinese characters for recognition and naming; however reading eye movements and not visual form analysis yield positive correlation with the reading test. This finding may suggest a stronger relationship between reading eye movement and Chinese word recognition than previously thought.
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