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M.Y. Lai, S. Fraser–Bell, J. Wu, R. Klein, R. Varma, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group; Socio–demographic Risk Factors for Age–related Macular Degeneration in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):3040.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To assess the association of various sociodemographic factors and early (soft indistinct drusen, retinal pigment abnormalities) and advanced (exudative, geographic atrophy) age–related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Methods: The LALES is a population–based study of eye disease in Latinos (primarily Mexican–Americans) aged 40 years and older. Age, sex, Native–American ancestry, acculturation, country of birth, employment, income, marital status, health insurance, and education level were assessed by an interviewer–administered questionnaire. All participants underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. AMD was diagnosed from stereoscopic macular photographs, graded using the modified Wisconsin Age–related Maculopathy Grading System. Logistic regression, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption was used to assess associations between AMD and sociodemographic factors. Results: Gradable retinal photographs from 5875 of the 6142 participants were included in the analyses. The mean age of the participants was 54.9 yeas, 42% were male, and 5% had Native American ancestry. Older age was the most significant risk factor for early AMD and advanced AMD (OR:5.3, and OR:113.2, p<0.0001). Males were at a significantly higher risk of early AMD (OR:1.9, p<0.0001), but not advanced AMD (OR:1.2, , p=0.64). While Native American ancestry was not associated with early AMD (OR:1.0, p=0.87), it was associated with advanced AMD and geographic atrophy (OR: 4.5, and OR:13.6, respectively p<0.005). Acculturation, country of birth, health insurance, education level, income, employment, and marital status were not associated with either early or advanced AMD. Conclusions: Older age, male gender and Native American ancestry were related to AMD in Latinos. Few other socio–demographic factors were associated with AMD. The reason for the association of male Latinos and those with Native American ancestry with AMD deserves further investigation.
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