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T. Ito, M. Yoshida, A. Kato, Y. Ogura; Comparative studies on the retinal toxicity of trypan blue and indocyanin green . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):3669.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of trypan blue and indocyanin green (ICG) on ocular tissues. Methods: Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE–19, ATCC) were cultured in a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco’s modified medium and Ham’s F12 with 2.5 mM L–glutamine. The cells were incubated for 4 and 12 hours in the media containing various amounts of trypan blue (4×10–3∼4 mg/ml) or ICG (1.5×10–3∼2.5 mg/ml). After the incubation, survival cells were quantified by XTT assay (Sigma–Aldrich Fine Chemicals, USA). Trypan blue (0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) and ICG (0.1 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml) solutions were injected into the vitreous cavity of New Zealand white rabbits. Electroretinogram was studied 4 weeks after the administration. The eyes were then enucleated and processed for histological examinations. Results: The survival rate of RPE cells was not statistically different between trypan blue treated and control groups both in 4–hour and 12–hour incubation. ICG, however, reduced the survival rate of RPE cells from the concentration of 0.50 mg/ml (4–hour incubation). With 12–hour incubation, the lower concentration (0.15 mg/ml) showed the toxic effect on the RPE cells. Conclusions: Although trypan blue did not show any toxic effects on the cultured RPE cells, ICG significantly reduced the survival rate of RPE cells. These results may explain the mechanism of ICG–related retinal toxicity during ICG–assisted vitreous surgery.
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