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L. Tong, D. Globe, J. Wu, S. Paz, S. Fraser–Bell, C. Trujillo, T. Lopez, R. Varma; Are Individual Health Perceptions Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Latinos? . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2004;45(13):5244.
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© ARVO (1962-2015); The Authors (2016-present)
Purpose: To determine whether individual health perceptions are associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Latinos. Methods: Consecutive self–identified Latinos with diabetes at the Los Angeles County Hospital were interviewed in either English or Spanish to determine individual health perceptions. Constructs included those from the Health Belief Model (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers), attitude towards diabetes, goal setting, motivation, self–efficacy, internal locus of control (LOC), and external LOC. Age, gender, duration of disease, education, and health insurance status was also determined. DR was determined by dilated fundus examination. Associations between individual health perceptions and DR were assessed using the chi–square statistic and the stepwise multiple regressions. Results: One hundred and one participants completed the study. Mean age was 55.4±9.3 years and 64% were women. Mean age at diabetes diagnosis was 43.3±11.7 years. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the following variables were independently associated with the presence of DR: disease duration (OR=1.22, p=<0.0001), exercising for at least 30 minutes per week (OR=1.29, p=0.02), having an internal locus of control (having the ability to control their diabetes) (OR=5.66, p=0.04), and having a negative attitude (having diabetes made their lives more difficult) (OR=18.03, p=0.007). Perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit, perceived barriers, goal setting, motivation, and self–efficacy (p>0.05) were not significantly associated with having any DR. Conclusions: In our study, a negative attitude towards diabetes appears to be the strongest risk factor associated with an increased risk of DR. Further studies need to explore the relationship of such individual health perceptions to outcomes in diabetic retinopathy.
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