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P. Fernandez, L. Sadaba, B. Nespereira, M. Perez-Ilzarbe, R. Arias, C. Sainz, J.A. Rodriguez, A. Garcia-Layana; Lutein Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prevents Ultrastructural Changes in apoE Deficient Mouse . Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2003;44(13):463.
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Purpose: ApoE deficient (apoE-/-) mice is a genetic experimental model of hypercholesterolemia that developes atherosclerosis and shows morphological and ultrastructural retinal alterations. Our aim was to investigate biochemical changes in plasma and retina and ultrastructural retinal alterations of apoE-/- mice, and the protective effect of lutein. Methods: Three months old mice were distributed in four groups (n=10): wild type, wild type plus lutein (0,09 mg/Kg per day), apoE-/- and apoE-/- plus lutein (0,09 mg/Kg per day). Total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and nitrite and nitrate levels (indirect index of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis) were measured in plasma. TBARS and NO levels were determined in retinal homogenates. Ultrastructural alterations were analyzed by electron microscopy. Results: ApoE-/- mice show an increased total cholesterol (P<0,05) and triglycerides (P<0,05) concentration in comparison with wild type, combined with an sistemic and retinal lipid peroxidation increase (P<0,05, P<0,01, respectively). Also, it is shown an increase (P<0,05) of plasmatic NO in apoE-/- mice and a decrease (P<0,05) in retinal NO concentration. Lutein treatment did not modify plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Retinal lipid peroxidation was lower (P<0,05) in apoE-/- plus lutein group. Electron microscopy photographs show that apoE-/- mice present alterations like basal laminar deposits, disruption of Bruch's membrane and an increase of vacuoles that seem to be autophagic. This changes are not present in apoE-/- mice plus lutein group. Conclusions: In this model of murine hypercholesterolemia there is a detectable plasmatic and retinal lipid peroxidation. Lutein administration seems to be effective in protecting retina from hypercholesterolemia-derived oxidative damage.
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